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Uniformisation locale simultanée par monomialisation d'éléments clefs

Abstract : The local uniformization theorem is an important result in theory of singularities. Known in characteristic zero, it is an open problem in positive characteristic. In this thesis, we give a simultaneous version of this theorem in zero characteristic. We consider a regular local ring R with a valuation centered in its maximal ideal. We prove the local uniformization theorem by monomializing simultaneously the elements of R. The proof given is new and rich in three respects : first, we monomialize every element with the same sequence of blow-ups. Furthermore, this sequence is explicit and we know the coordinates at each step. In addition, the construction is independent of any hypothesis on the rank of the valuation. To this end, we use a theory intimately linked to that of valuations based on the notion of key elements, a generalization of key polynomials, which is explained in detail in the second chapter of this manuscript. We give a new definition of key polynomials and we study their precise relation with key polynomials of Mac Lane and Vaquié. The last chapter is devoted to the more general framework of local quasi-excellent domains of equicharacteristic zero. In this case, although still necessary, the theory of key elements is no longer sufficient. We need to use the implicit prime ideal H of such a ring R and show that the problem can be reduced to the desingularisation of the quotient of the completion of R by H.
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Julie Decaup. Uniformisation locale simultanée par monomialisation d'éléments clefs. Mathématiques générales [math.GM]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30068⟩. ⟨tel-02069188⟩

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