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Le déficit olfactif : le comprendre, le diagnostiquer, et compenser ses effets sur la qualité de vie

Abstract : When our smell is altered (dysosmia), our security, our health, our pleasure, might be altered as well. This PhD thesis bring new insights about olfactory deficits, through: (1) Prevalence of the deficit, especially with aging and consequences on healthy nutrition. (2) Remediation of olfactory abilities, with contextualized olfactory training. Five studies, combining psychophysical and neurobiological approaches, have been performed with patients with dysosmics (altered olfaction) and normosmics (normal olfaction). Our work has shown olfactory deficit is far from being rare in France, since more than one for 10 persons and one for five in older than 60-year-old people experience olfactory dysfunctions. In ageing society, this prevalence is a matter of concerns, as we also show, in this work, that these olfactory deficits lead to significative change in food behaviors that might cause subsequent nutritional scarcity and imbalances and thus general health. Then, we explore the effect of olfactory training on the dysosmic patients’ olfactory perception. Our data suggest that the presence of non-olfactive stimuli (such as pictures and labels) during training can improve the remediation due to it, thanks to the facilitation, during encoding, of the odor memory traces activation. To conclude, results from this thesis corroborate idea that olfactory deficits can be remediated by the modulation of olfactory object mental representations, through contextual elements related to these representations. Our work also shows dysosmia is associated with ageing. Thus, we make recommendations especially toward aged people, but also to caring institutions and their surroundings
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Cédric Manesse. Le déficit olfactif : le comprendre, le diagnostiquer, et compenser ses effets sur la qualité de vie. Neurosciences. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSE1291⟩. ⟨tel-02069069⟩

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