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Theses

Effets bénéfiques de l’activité physique dans le syndrome d’apnées-hypopnées obstructives du sommeil

Abstract : The main purpose of this thesis was to assess the benefit of regular physical activity on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A total of five studies were conducted during this thesis and will be presented during this manuscript. These studies took place in two different practice settings: a community setting within the French Federation of Physical Education and Voluntary Gymnastics (FFEPGV) and an in-hospital setting into the Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Unit of the University Hospital of Saint-Etienne.Our main study, EXESAS, evaluated the benefit of a community physical activity program practiced within the FFEPGV (NeuroGyV™ program) in a randomized controlled trial including 96 patients aged from 40 to 80 years with moderate OSA. We demonstrated that nine months of NeuroGyV™ program, including three hours of physical activity per week, could "cure" (apnea-hypopnea index [IAH] <15 events/hour) 58% of patients in the exercise group while only 20% of patients in the control group who received dietary advice and physical activity recommendations were considered cured. At the end of the program, patients in the exercise group also improved their quality of life and reduced their sleepiness. Beyond the improvement of the AHI, we demonstrated an increase in the maximum oxygen consumption during exercise test, suggesting a cardiovascular risk reduction.The EXESAS study also investigated the effect of the NeuroGyV™ program on autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity as measured by heart rate variability (HRV). We showed that ANS activity is preserved in OSA patients who benefited from the physical activity program. In contrast, patients in the control group had a greater hypoxemic load and decreased heart rate variability, suggesting that OSA and the associated cardiovascular risk worsened spontaneously in absence of regular physical activity.The screening of the EXESAS study led to an abstract on the choice of the most relevant OSA screening questionnaire in the general population. We showed that the STOP-BANG questionnaire had a better sensitivity than the Berlin and thus STOP-BANG questionnaire should be preferred in clinical screening even if its specificity remains low.Finally, our trial in cardiac rehabilitation confirmed the benefit of exercise training on OSA severity and on the rebalancing of ANS in coronary arterial disease (CAD) patients. Yet, preliminary results from the RICAOS study showed that inspiratory muscles training in CAD patients with moderate OSA do not provide additional benefits over a standard cardiac rehabilitation program.In conclusion, regular physical activity effectively reduces the severity of OSA in patients with or without a history of heart disease. The results of the five studies conducted during this thesis suggest that regular physical activity should be considered as a cornerstone in the prevention and management of mild and moderate forms.Future studies should be conducted to explore in more detail the underlying physiological mechanisms and determine which patients should better benefit from this therapeutic alternative as a matter of priority.
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Submitted on : Friday, March 15, 2019 - 2:34:58 PM
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Mathieu Berger. Effets bénéfiques de l’activité physique dans le syndrome d’apnées-hypopnées obstructives du sommeil. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSES009⟩. ⟨tel-02069066v1⟩

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