L'Ingénierie tissulaire du cartilage : effet de l'âge du donneur et des contraintes mécanique et chimique du microenvironnement

Abstract : Cartilage is an important tissue of synovial joints. Following a mechanical problem, traumatic or inflammatory, the cartilage is degraded causing joint pain and loss of mobility. Because cartilage is a non-innervated and non-vascularized tissue, its self-repair is very weak. More and more techniques are being developed for the cartilage but none has resulted in a new fully functional cartilage. In particular, tissue engineering (TE) is a very promising technique that consists in obtaining a cartilage graft whose mechanical and structural properties are satisfactory once implanted in the joint. TE is based on the association of cells, biomaterial and growth factors. The aim of this thesis is to study the effect of cell donor’s age on graft synthesis by TE in vitro and on the quality of the cartilage obtained during implantation in a NUDE rat model. Then in a last part, the impact of the chemical and mechanical environment is studied on the quality of the graft. Our studies show that the age of the donor both in vitro and in vivo has an impact on graft quality and repair once implanted in the animal. In fact, grafts from older donors have slightly higher mechanical properties and significantly higher synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins (ECM) than grafts from younger donors. In addition, the inflammatory response of grafts implanted in a cartilage defect in the NUDE rat is lower for older donors. Finally, we show that the mechanical microenvironment (compression or hydrostatic pressure) and chemical microenvironment (synovial fluid (SF) or TGF-β) play an important role in the cellular response. Moreover, depending on age, the combination of these different factors gives different results. For example, for a compression solicitation, it is the SF that is to be favored to obtain better quality grafts in the case of elderly donors. On the contrary, for the same compression stress, it is the presence of TGF-β1 that leads to the best quality graft for young donors. These studies highlight the importance of donor age and further show that a specific patient protocol of TE is the best solution.
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Ophélie Pollet. L'Ingénierie tissulaire du cartilage : effet de l'âge du donneur et des contraintes mécanique et chimique du microenvironnement. Autre. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSEC022⟩. ⟨tel-02068309⟩

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