Évolution et diversité des structures minéralisées chez les sélaciens : approche paléo-développementale

Abstract : Chondrichthyans exhibit a number of interesting features which make them valuable organisms to investigate from an evo-devo perspective. However, due to their cartilaginous skeleton, isolated teeth are usually the only available fossil material to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Their teeth are covered by enameloid, a hypermineralized tissue whose microstructure has proven a useful taxonomic tool to differentiate between modern forms (neoselachians) and their extinct relatives. However it is poorly known in several groups, thus casting doubts on the validity of such characters.In this work, I first describe the enameloid microstructure of batoids based on an extensive sampling of both their extant and extinct diversity. I highlight unexpected diversity in the microstructural organization of enameloid which was thought to be very stable in neoselachians. The developmental basis for this diversity was then investigated in two extant chondrichthyan models through classic histological techniques and in situ hybridization. The results highlight differences in their enameloid organic matrix, as well as important differences with enameloid formation in osteichthyans, casting doubts on the homology of the two tissues. Finally I investigate skeletogenesis in the lesser spotted catshark from both a morphological and molecular perspective. Using X-Ray microtomography and in situ hybridization, I highlight both the mineralization sequence of the cartilaginous skeleton and the molecular context in which it calcifies over the course of embryonic development. I find that skeletal calcification in chondrichthyans appears to be much more versatile than in osteichthyans.
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Sébastien Enault. Évolution et diversité des structures minéralisées chez les sélaciens : approche paléo-développementale. Evolution [q-bio.PE]. Université Montpellier, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015MONTS234⟩. ⟨tel-02067814⟩

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