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La protection juridique du patrimoine culturel en Lybie (1835-2017)

Abstract : The juristic protection of cultural heritage in Libya has been divided into two distinct periods. The first before 1869 was characterized by the absence of specific legislation. Apparent remains and transportable archaeological pieces were exposed to pillage and bargaining, while intangible heritage was transmitted through a popular memory that lost part of its cultural heritage over time. The second period, from the mid-nineteenth century, is marked for the Libyan heritage by a desire for protection. From 1869 to the present and after independence, it has had different stages and varying degrees in the preservation of cultural property from a legal point of view.This doctoral research is particularly interested in the last 150 years when the definition of the heritage and the vision of the Muslim law on the heritage were taken into account, because the religious heritage remains deeply in the minds of the people and constitutes an obstacle to the acceptance of several forms of cultural heritage.From the various powers that have been exercised in Libyan territory, it is possible to understand the contributions and limits, the influences and developments, the stakes and the actors, the normative provisions and their application during the Ottoman period, Italian occupation and finally the British military administration. These two European countries have focused on the protection of the tangible cultural heritage and its rediscovery. As in other areas, intangible heritage has received special attention from both administrations.After the proclamation of independence, interest in cultural heritage was lessened despite the many laws and resolutions promulgated favorable to the emergence of a national heritage law and intended to protect cultural wealth due to the discovery large quantities of oil. The country then directs its economy towards the exploitation of a rent implying the abandonment of the other resources of the country. The economy was privileged and the state gave no importance to the development of archaeological tourism.In addition, awareness of the importance of heritage as a constituent part of the cultural identity of the people has not been anchored in the minds of most citizens, in particular because of educational programs that do not Heritage issue. On the other hand, they were saturated with discriminatory nationalist subjects to combat internal and external cultural diversity. The propaganda of the old regime has tried to do so over the decades. With the collapse of the regime of Colonel Gaddafi in 2011, a new patrimonial legislation made it possible to take into consideration new areas. Possible developments can be expected from the influence of international conventions.This thesis, by analyzing the evolution of the legal protection of the Libyan cultural heritage and making available the normative corpus elaborated over the centuries, is a first step for future research on cultural heritage and more broadly on the question Of Libyan law.
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Yousef Albaghdadi. La protection juridique du patrimoine culturel en Lybie (1835-2017). Droit. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017CLFAD004⟩. ⟨tel-02067466⟩

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