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Multiscale, multiphysic modeling of the skeletal muscle during isometric contraction

Abstract : The neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems are complex System of Systems (SoS) that perfectly interact to provide motion. From this interaction, muscular force is generated from the muscle activation commanded by the Central Nervous System (CNS) that pilots joint motion. In parallel an electrical activity of the muscle is generated driven by the same command of the CNS. This electrical activity can be measured at the skin surface using electrodes, namely the surface electromyogram (sEMG). The knowledge of how these muscle out comes are generated is highly important in biomechanical and clinical applications. Evaluating and quantifying the interactions arising during the muscle activation are hard and complex to investigate in experimental conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a way to describe and estimate it. In the bioengineering literature, several models of the sEMG and the force generation are provided. They are principally used to describe subparts of themuscular outcomes. These models suffer from several important limitations such lacks of physiological realism, personalization, and representability when a complete muscle is considered. In this work, we propose to construct bioreliable, personalized and fast models describing electrical and mechanical activities of the muscle during contraction. For this purpose, we first propose a model describing the electrical activity at the skin surface of the muscle where this electrical activity is determined from a voluntary command of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), activating the muscle fibers that generate a depolarization of their membrane that is filtered by the limbvolume. Once this electrical activity is computed, the recording system, i.e. the High Density sEMG (HD-sEMG) grid is define over the skin where the sEMG signal is determined as a numerical integration of the electrical activity under the electrode area. In this model, the limb is considered as a multilayered cylinder where muscle, adipose and skin tissues are described. Therefore, we propose a mechanical model described at the Motor Unit (MU) scale. The mechanical outcomes (muscle force, stiffness and deformation) are determined from the same voluntary command of the PNS, and is based on the Huxley sliding filaments model upscale at the MU scale using the distribution-moment theory proposed by Zahalak. This model is validated with force profile recorded from a subject implanted with an electrical stimulation device. Finally, we proposed three applications of the proposed models to illustrate their reliability and usefulness. A global sensitivity analysis of the statistics computed over the sEMG signals according to variation of the HD-sEMG electrode grid is performed. Then, we proposed in collaboration a new HDsEMG/force relationship, using personalized simulated data of the Biceps Brachii from the electrical model and a Twitch based model to estimate a specific force profile corresponding to a specific sEMG sensor network and muscle configuration. To conclude, a deformableelectro-mechanicalmodelcouplingthetwoproposedmodelsisproposed. This deformable model updates the limb cylinder anatomy considering isovolumic assumption and respecting incompressible property of the muscle.
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Vincent Carriou. Multiscale, multiphysic modeling of the skeletal muscle during isometric contraction. Biomechanics [physics.med-ph]. Université de Technologie de Compiègne, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017COMP2376⟩. ⟨tel-02067013⟩

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