Présence et comportement des butylétains dans les stations d'épuration des eaux usées par lagunage naturel

Abstract : This thesis deals with the behavior of a priority compound on the basis of the framework Directive on water at European level: tributyltin (TBT) ) and its metabolites (dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT)). The study is focused on two waste stabilization pond treatment plants (WSP), which is an appropriate treatment to domestic effluents from sparsely urbanized areas.This thesis comes to fill the lack of scientific results on (1) the level of butyltin concentrations in domestic effluents from sparsely urbanized areas, in the input of the WSP and the output after treatment; (2) the efficiency of butyltins elimination by the WSP treatment; (3) the identification of the processes that control the fate of these elements during the treatment.Butyltins are measured in particulate and dissolved matrices and in sludge, by GC-ICP-MS, in all stages of the treatment by lagooning of two villages of the Department of Hérault (34, France): Gigean (6000 p.e.) and Montbazin (4500 p.e.).It is shown that the three butyltin species are consistently present in all samples taken from the two WSP. Butyltins arrive primarily in particulate form in the raw water. During treatment, the processes of sorption onto particulate matter and the settling of the latter at the bottom of each basin are the main factors for the elimination of butyltins. The first anaerobic ponds, characterized by deep depth and long residence times, allow the elimination of more than 60% Gigean (93% at Montbazin) of butyltins. Bottom sludge of each basin show high butyltins concentrations. The resuspension of butyltins is noted in the last maturation ponds, characterized by shallow depth, which may be due to re-thermal stratification. At the outlet, despite significant butyltin removal, concentrations in butyltins remain high (12 to 228 and 1.8 to 15 ng (Sn). L-1, respectively for Montbazin and Gigean).Laboratory batch experiments were conducted to study sorption processes following several experimental protocols. It was thus shown that: (1) the distribution of the butyltin species between solid and liquid phases is different from one test to another according to the operating conditions; (2) the affinity between butyltins and bottom sludge is important, regardless of its provenance. 98% of the butyltins are found in the solid phase, due to their hydrophobicity. The TBT sludge-water partition coefficient is higher than that obtained for other type of solid phases (75000 L.kg-1); (3) the process of sorption is fast.Moreover processes of sorption, desorption and dealkylation of TBT, explaining changes in concentrations of MBT and DBT in the solid phase were identified. Desorption of TBT is fast. It degrades in the liquid phase in DBT which part turns into MBT. The sorption of MBT on sludge has been systematically measured. Therefore, the sorption phenomenon is not completely reversible over time. These results help to explain the dysfunctions observed in WSP, for example after direct inputs of rainwater.This thesis shows the systematic presence of butyltin in waste stabilization pond treatment plants. In-situ data coupled with laboratory tests allow to understand the behaviour of these compounds during this treatment: the solid fraction plays a key role in the processes of sorption-desorption-(bio) degradation of butyltins.
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Aboubakr Sabah. Présence et comportement des butylétains dans les stations d'épuration des eaux usées par lagunage naturel. Ingénierie de l'environnement. Université Montpellier; Université Sidi Mohamed ben Abdellah (Fès, Maroc). Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016MONTS020⟩. ⟨tel-02064348⟩

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