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Physiopathologie des déficits moteurs dans les troubles du spectre autistique : approche neuroanatomique dans deux modèles environnementaux

Abstract : Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disabilities that begins early in childhood and lasts throughout a person's life. The complex etiology is currently unknown and does not allow to develop new therapeutical strategies. The aim of this thesis was to identify the neuronal network involved in motor symptoms and propose new diagnostic tools and new therapeutical approaches focusing this linkage. We anatomically investigated the different regions responsible for motor control: the cerebellum, the substantia nigra pars compacta, the striatum and the motor cortex. This study has been performed using two environmental mouse models, prenatally exposed to either an anticonvulsant drug: the valproic acid, either an immunostimulant mimicking a viral infection: the polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid.Our results have indicated restricted neuronal losses in the cerebellum and in the motor cortex, which were model- and sex-dependent. These data also point out the heterogeneity found according to the different syndromes and the sex ratio in patients. Furthermore, we have also shown that the neuronal loss could be associated to as well the motor and the social deficits. Interestingly, these brain regions could be used as therapeutical target to reverse both ASD symptoms.
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Obélia Haida. Physiopathologie des déficits moteurs dans les troubles du spectre autistique : approche neuroanatomique dans deux modèles environnementaux. Neurobiologie. Université de Poitiers, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018POIT2305⟩. ⟨tel-02062240⟩

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