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Biocapteurs implantables pour un monitorage intracérébral minimalement invasif

Charles Chatard 1
1 INL - DE - INL - Dispositifs Electroniques
INL - Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon
Abstract : Brain function is based on the release of molecules such as neurotransmitters and metabolites into the interstitial fluid. The study of these molecules is essential to better understand their physiological and pathological role. For this purpose, implantable enzymatic biosensors are a promising tool because of their quantitative, real-time and deep tissue detection abilities. Depending on the dimensions of the biosensor, the impact of implantation may have considerable consequences on the chemical composition of the interstitial fluid. In addition, each implantation induces a local inflammatory reaction called "foreign body reaction". The reduction of these reactions is crucial in order to provide more accurate estimations of molecules concentrations present in the interstitial fluid. In this sense, this manuscript will expose two ways of reducing the lesional impact due to the implantation of biosensors. First of all, it will be presented the miniaturization of enzymatic biosensors up to external diameters less than 15 µm. And it will be demonstrated in vivo that these ultra miniaturized biosensors have the potential to be implanted in the brain without inducing detectable damage to tissues and blood vessels. Then, the development of a microprobe fabricated using MEMS technologies combining electrochemical and optical detection will be introduced as part of the monitoring of peri- and intratumoral interstitial fluid from glioblastomes modified to fluoresce. By integrating two types of detection on a single micro-needle, this microprobe reduces the number of implantations. These two miniaturization approaches open up the possibility of following the chemical composition of the interstitial fluid in a less invasive way, and thus of better preserving the physiology of the tissues studied in the brain.
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Charles Chatard. Biocapteurs implantables pour un monitorage intracérébral minimalement invasif. Biochimie [q-bio.BM]. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSEI086⟩. ⟨tel-02061836⟩

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