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Amélioration de la disponibilité opérationnelle des systèmes de stockage de l'énergie électrique multicellulaires

Abstract : High-capacity electrical energy storage system (EESS) are often matrix-organized system with a large number of elementary storage cells. Due to manufactoring tolerances and their individual use, the electrical characteristics of these cells do not evolve in the same way. These imbalances reduce operative dependability, in the short term by contributing to a decrease of the charge-discharge capacity, in the long-term by shortening lifetime. To improve storage performance, redundant cells can be added. It is also possible, in order to increase efficiency of stored energy restitution, to balance electrical characteristics by using energy exchange forced by an adequate configuration. It should therefore be possible to increase long-term operative dependability by reconfiguring internal connections in dynamic mode. Parallel-series (PS) architecture EESS consists of the series association of blocks, made up of several cells connected in parallel. Series-Parallel dual solution (SP) associates strings of cells in parallel. If other architectures are being studied, often requiring several switches per cell to reconfigure the matrix, we propose in this thesis a new architecture, called C3C, satisfying an acceptable level of reliability and distributing current flows. We then compare the classic solutions and the C3C in terms of reliability and the long-term operative dependability and propose a reflection on the possibilities to discrete control aspects to pilot architecture with a suitable control algorithm. The reliability of any structure can be improved by redundancy, with additional cells that will be used either to replace failing cells or temporarily supplemeting the weak ones. The system may also be designed to tolerate the defect of a portion of the cells. We demonstrate by modeling reliability diagrams and Markov chains that the C3C and PS architectures have a much eigher level of reliability than a SP architecture. The sustainability of these structures can also be improved by piloting activating and rest of the available resources according to different strategies in a choice algorithm based on SoC (State of Charge) or SoH (State of Health) of each cell. To do this, we model a cell on Matlab, precisely simulating the aging parameters and their dynamic evolution. It emerges that, whatever the architecture, if it includes a minimal share of redundant cells, an adequate differentiated management of the cells allows an improvement of the long-term operative dependability of nearly 40% on average. In order to study the reconfigurability control of architectures, we propose a model based on Discrete Event Systems through a colored Petri net. Simulation of this model has reinforced the behaviors already identified.
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Submitted on : Friday, March 8, 2019 - 9:43:07 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-02061381, version 1


Christophe Savard. Amélioration de la disponibilité opérationnelle des systèmes de stockage de l'énergie électrique multicellulaires. Energie électrique. Université de Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSEI111⟩. ⟨tel-02061381⟩



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