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Contribution à l’étude de la croissance du disque intervertébral et de cartilage de synthèse

Abstract : This thesis aims to contribute to the study of the intervertebral disc growth. It is a part of a global reasearch program which focuses on the development of new predictive tools to improve treatments related to cartilage and fibrocartilage growth phenomenon pathologies. A second objective is to provide elements of understanding that could be useful for the development of innovative tissue engineering technics.The first experimental part of this work consists in the identification of quasi-static mechanical properties of the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disk, through an anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive law, as well as a residual strains field present within the annulus fibrosus, through a digital image correlation tool. This double identification makes it possible both to estimate the stress field in vivo of the annulus fibrosus, but also to obtain a historical trace of the growth process which will serve us as a reference in the rest of the study.We note the spatial homogenization of the deformations during physiological loadings when residual strains field is take into account in a numerical model of annulus fibrosus. These results underline the importance of the consideration of residual strains in the estimation of the deformations and stresses undergone by the annulus fibrosus.In addition, a growth scenario of the annulus fibrosus associated with two mechanical growth criterias has also been implemented using the finite element method. The results of this numerical study did not make it possible to reproduce the residual strains field estimated experimentally. Only the growth model using an anisotropic mechanical criterion taking into account the fibers direction present in the annulus fibrosus and in the case of a deliberately omitted load in the vertical direction on the annulus fibrosus has made it possible to qualitatively reproduce the tangential residual strains measured experimentally.In order to complete the understanding of cartilage growth, a biomechanical study of a synthetic in vitro cartilage model revealed the impact of the TGF-beta3 growth factor on the extracellular matrix cartilage stiffness. A strong correlation between the cartilage cell gene expressions and the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix was found. This strong correlation between cellular activity and the rigidity of the extracellular matrix, coupled with the difficulty of the current growth models based solely on mechanical criteria, opens up interesting prospects for studies on the understanding of the phenomenon of growth under mechanical stimulus. In-depth study of this sample will eventually enrich the growth models to take into account the different physical phenomena present in biological tissues.
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Gilles Dusfour. Contribution à l’étude de la croissance du disque intervertébral et de cartilage de synthèse. Génie civil. Université Montpellier, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MONTS049⟩. ⟨tel-02059988v2⟩

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