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Étude du rôle d’une Ribonucléase de type III, MtRTL1b, lors du développement des nodosités fixatrices d’azote chez l’espèce modèle Medicago truncatula

Abstract : Almost all Legumes are able to establish symbiosis with soil bacteria called Rhizobia. During this interaction, a new organ is formed, the nodule. In this organ, bacteria fix the atmospheric nitrogen for the host plant. During Rhizobia-Legumes symbiosis twotranscriptomic changes were observed by different technologies like RNAseq (Maunoury et al., 2010) or microarrays experiment (Benedito et al., 2008). These dramatic changes occur at the different steps of nodule development and are mediated by various gene expression regulators including several keys transcription factors and small RNAs. These small regulatory RNAs are produced after cleavage of long double-stranded or hairpin RNA precursors by particular enzymes of the ribonuclease III (RNase III) family, called DICERLIKEproteins (DCL). However, additional RNase III encoding genes are present in plant genomes, whose roles remain to be fully determined.In this work, we characterized the RNAse III family in the model M. truncatula, as well as other legumes species. We also investigated the involvement in nodule development of MtRTL1b, one RNAse III, a nodule-specific orthologue of AtRTL1, a putative silencing repressor in Arabidopsis thaliana. First, we showed that the expression of this gene is activated just before differentiation and is mainly restricted in the interzone, where bacteroid become fully differentiated into the host cells and in the nitrogen fixation zone of the nodule. Repression of MtRTL1b expression, by RNA interference in transgenic roots, affected nodule development, nitrogen fixation and bacteroid viability while an opposite phenotype was observed in roots with ectopic expression of this gene. Then, RNASeq analyses showed that the RNAileads to the down-regulation of 1038 genes, including more than 109 NCRs, encoding peptides involved in bacteroid development and/or viability in indeterminate nodules. Moreover, genes involved in metabolic pathways and redox regulations as well as other genes involved in symbiosis, like leghemoglobins, are also down-regulated. RNAseq of small RNAs and double strand RNAs are under analysis to characterize changes in sRNA populations and identify dsRNA substrates of this RNAse III during nodule development.
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Jérémy Moreau. Étude du rôle d’une Ribonucléase de type III, MtRTL1b, lors du développement des nodosités fixatrices d’azote chez l’espèce modèle Medicago truncatula. Génomique, Transcriptomique et Protéomique [q-bio.GN]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS416⟩. ⟨tel-02059923⟩

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