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Rôle des dommages à l’ADN dans la dégénérescence des cellules de la cochlée et criblage des molécules thérapeutiques

Abstract : Presbycusis or age-related hearing loss is the third most common chronic disease. It represents a major health issue in our modern society. This is due to its evolving feature and the invalidating character of this disease. To date, it is generally accepted that oxidative stress can cause irreversible DNA damage and lead to premature senescence in cycling cells. However, there is no data on the role of DNA damage in age-related cochlear cell degeneration. Moreover, the link between oxidative stress, DNA damage and cochlear cell aging remains unclear.The main objective of this work was therefore to elucidate the role of DNA damage in the degeneration of cochlear cells. To do this, we used molecular and cellular biology approaches to identify signaling pathways associated with DNA damage in cochlear explants from 3-days old mice treated with cisplatin (CDDP). This antineoplastic drug is cytotoxic by causing DNA damage and is known for its harmful effects on hearing. In addition, we investigated the involvement of p53, one of the key effectors of DNA damage signaling, in vivo by treating p53ko mice with cisplatin. Using specific inhibitors targeting key steps of signaling pathways, hearing protection from the harmful effect of CDDP have also been studied. Finally, we used mouse models carrying xenografts of human breast cancer to check whether the co-treatments we had implemented made it possible to preserve the hearing without compromising the anti-tumor efficacy of the CDDP. Our results show that CDDP induces DNA double-strand breaks in the hair cells that are responsible for the activation of the ATM-Chk2-p53 pathway and, ultimately, for the death of these cells by apoptosis. . We have also shown that the absence of p53 in vivo prevents hearing loss and external hair cells degeneration upon intraperitoneal injection of CDDP. The systemic or local treatment using the p53 inhibitor PFT-α effectively prevents hearing loss without compromising the anti-tumor efficacy of CDDP.The second objective of my thesis was to identify the links between the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, markers of cell senescence and age-related hearing loss. To do this, I used cochlear explants of 3-days old mice treated with increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The appearance of DNA damage and senescent cells was investigated using immunolabeling and Western blotting technics. The results obtained in vitro were then validated in vivo on cochleae from SAMP8 (Senescence Accelerated Mouse Prone 8) and SAMR1 (Senescence Accelerated Mouse Resistant 1) mice. In order to confirm the role of oxidative stress in the early onset of presbycusis, we used a mouse line invalidated for the P66Shc gene, which is a stress adaptation gene known for its roles in ROS overproduction and in the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes. Finally, we assessed the possibility of preventing or slowing-down age-related hearing loss by treating SAMP8 mice with a SOD/catalase mimetic; EUK207. Our results showed that: i) overproduction of ROS is one of the major causal factors of age-related cochlear sensorial cells degeneration; ii) Activation of the p53-p21 pathway resulting in the early onset of senescence in postmitotic cochlear cells may explain premature aging of the cochlea; iii) EUK207 which is a superoxide and hydrogen peroxide scavenger, can attenuate ARHL in SAMP8 mice.All together our results highlight innovative and effective strategies for hearing protection.
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Nesrine Benkafadar. Rôle des dommages à l’ADN dans la dégénérescence des cellules de la cochlée et criblage des molécules thérapeutiques. Organes des sens. Université Montpellier, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MONTT007⟩. ⟨tel-02059895⟩

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