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Approche de la complexité des risques sanitaires hydriques dans les quartiers précaires d'Antananarivo : la notion de contexte à l'épreuve des pratiques et représentations citadines

Abstract : The geographical study of the health risks related to water in Antananarivo, metropolitan capital of Madagascar, a tropical country with a low level development, is articulated through the access conditions to the water resources, the evaluation of supplied water quality and the domestic practices performed until its consumption. This thesis seeks to illustrate via the hydric determinant how complex are the issues at the intersection of health and environment in an urban developing area. This complexity is due to the integration of the various components of the pathogenic system and the connections between them. In Antananarivo, our analyses show that the disparities of health as regards hydric risks are the reflection of a dichotomic social configuration inherited between the lower and the upper city and thus strongly impregnated by the social representations. To understand the mechanisms at the origin of these disparities of health, life environment in the precarious districts of Antananarivo is studied as a risk factor. These places are subjected to effects which are identified in the literature like contextual effects (relating to the characteristics of the territory) and compositional effects (relating to the characteristics of the individuals). In Antananarivo, the quantitative approach confirms the predominance of the contextual effects over the compositional effects. However, our fieldwork moderates this static and deterministic vision of the surveyed territories through the observation of the coping strategies developed by the populations to mitigate the failures of the urban services of health, water and sanitation. In agreement with recent publications, this research, argues that it exists a more complex and retroactive relation between the practices of the populations and the territories. This relation is in perpetual evolution. The individuals by their practices adapt and modify the configuration of the territories and conversely.
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Carole Ognard. Approche de la complexité des risques sanitaires hydriques dans les quartiers précaires d'Antananarivo : la notion de contexte à l'épreuve des pratiques et représentations citadines. Géographie. Université de la Réunion, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LARE0032⟩. ⟨tel-02059867⟩

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