Algorithmes et résultats de complexité pour des problèmes de graphes avec contraintes additionnelles

Abstract : Domination problems (dominating set, independant dominating set, ...) as well as covering problems (vertex-cover, Steiner tree, ...) are NP-complete. However, for most of these problems, it is always possible to construct a (eventually bad) solution in polynomial time, or at least it is possible to determine whether a solution exists. Those problems originally came from industry, but are simplified modelizations of the real life problems. We add additional constraints modeling plausible practical constraints : conflicts which are pairs of elements that cannot apear simultaneously in a solution (to modelize various incompatibilities), connexity in a second graph (elements of the solution must be able to communicate, and the communication links are a second graph), and obligations which are subsets of interdependant vertices which must be added simultaneously in a solution.We don't aim to model a specific real-world problem, but to study how these plausible constraints affect the complexity of the studied problems. We will see that, in many cases, even determining the existence of a solution (regardless of its size) become hard. The firefighter problem models firefighters aiming to contain a fire spreading turn by turn in a (eventually infinite) graph. We studied this problem with the addition of deplacement constraints for the firefighters (a limited moving speed between turns). We will see that, most of the time, this constraint increase the number of firefighters necessary to contain the fire, but does not trigger such major change as constraints studied in the others problems.
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Alexis Cornet. Algorithmes et résultats de complexité pour des problèmes de graphes avec contraintes additionnelles. Algorithme et structure de données [cs.DS]. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CLFAC034⟩. ⟨tel-02059498⟩

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