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Rôle de l'organisation de l'espace de travail sur les activités effectives et empêchées des enseignants : rôle de la configuration de la salle de sciences dans l'apprentissage de la compétence d'argumentation

Abstract : The organization of the workspace is an aspect of the instrumental context of teaching (Grangeat & Hudson, 2015). The appropriation of the space of the class as an instrument (Rabardel, 1995) may facilitate the activity of the professional or on the contrary reduce the teacher’s power to act (Clot, 2008), by preventing or by limiting actions and interactions. The space of the classroom is a relational space (Löw, 2001) that carries a more or less strong frontal message, determining a structure of communication more or less directed towards the teacher (Fisher and Fousse, 2002).The layout of the students has an incidence on their performances (Perkins & Wieman, 2005; Brooks, 2011, 2012) and it also seems that the interactions between pupils differ according to the accessibility of the teacher in their workspace (Issaadi & Jaillet, 2017). The space of the classroom is also the space of activity (Leplat, 2000), where the teacher is moving, playing on the codes of proxemy and using specific places (Hall, 1968, Forest, 2006). The teacher's movements appear as professional gestures, expressing professional knowledge and perception of the spatial affordances by the teacher (Gibson, 1979; Warren &Wang, 1987).This search analyzed the teacher's movements under the angle of the analysis of activity, by examining the accessibility (Vickerman, 1974) of four classroom spaces (Islands, Bus, Hybrid and Comb). The objective was to examine to what extent the constraints bound to the workspace modified the interactions between the teacher and the groups of students. The methodology used behavioral mapping following Legendre and Depeau (2003), in order to link the spatial and temporal data bound to the teacher's movements and the data concerning the processes of learning.The verbal exchanges between the students in a group – the argumentation, realization of the task and motivational exchanges- and the exchanges between the teacher and the group, were analyzed, in the context of the Inquiry Based Sciences Teaching (IBST). This context presents specific constraints bound to the space since the furniture is fixed to the ground, and needs an organization adapted to the work in small groups. Two constructs, the potential accessibility and the effective proximity were mobilized in this search.The results show that a specific value of potential accessibility characterizes every configuration, and that the effective proximity of the teacher towards the groups of students seems correlated with the potential accessibility of the groups. They also show that, although the verbal interactions between the teachers and the groups do not differ according to the configuration, the quality of the regulatory process in a group and the quality of the process of argumentation are affected by the configuration, and that their quality is less good when the access is more difficult, what underlines the role of the perception of accessibility.We suggest to use the constructs of potential accessibility, of effective proximity, and the methodology of geospatial analysis of the interactions of class for assessing the new learning spaces that emerge with the generalization of the digital tools in class.
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Isabelle Lermigeaux. Rôle de l'organisation de l'espace de travail sur les activités effectives et empêchées des enseignants : rôle de la configuration de la salle de sciences dans l'apprentissage de la compétence d'argumentation. Education. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAH019⟩. ⟨tel-02057064⟩

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