De l'obsession du sang pur à la reconnaissance du métissage et à la valorisation du multiculturalisme : la Corée du Sud et les enfants nés de couples mixtes (1910-2016)

Abstract : This dissertation examines how the perception of "mixed-race" (honhyol in Korean), that was rejected for a longtime in Korean society based on a national idea obsessed with lineage, has gradually become a public problem that called the active intervention of the government known as "multicultural policies". The study draws on research from a socio-historical analysis of three diffrent "mixed-race" generations in Korean history: mixed-race people of Japanese and Korean parents during Japanese colonization (1910-1945); "mixed-race" born between American soldiers and Korean women under U.S. military occupation (1945-1980); and children of mixed marriage between Koreans and foreign brides from 1990s. On the one hand, the analysis reveals that the dialectic of inclusion and exclusion is at the center of the history of the "mixed-race" issue. While Korea's independence and international adoption of the United States had masked the issue of "mixed-race" in Korea in the name of purity of the nation, recent introduction of the so-called "multicultural policies" provokes nuanced perspectives of "mixed-race" identities. On the other hand, it shows that this today's valorization of "mixed-race" is closely linked to the development of a Korean type of multiculturalism, and not solely a dialogue of inclusion versus exclusion. Multiculturalism is increasingly being used to integrate families with at least one "mixed-race" child who may be perceived as Korean by paternal affiliation but also as a solution to the demographic crisis caused by the low birthrate and its aging population. Although Korean society is moving towards more inclusion and integration of "mixed-race" people and an open-minded attitude to cultural differences, that "racial" nationalist idea remains even with current efforts toward political and social multicultural initiatives and changes.
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Bak-Ne Im Ahn. De l'obsession du sang pur à la reconnaissance du métissage et à la valorisation du multiculturalisme : la Corée du Sud et les enfants nés de couples mixtes (1910-2016). Sociologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCC138⟩. ⟨tel-02055642⟩

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