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Génération et manipulation d'états photoniques intriqués pour la communication et la métrologie quantiques

Abstract : After a first quantum revolution marked by the advent of quantum physics and its counter-intuitive laws, the XXIst century is in the throes of a second quantum revolution based on quantum technologies. These promises a major upheaval in the areas of communication, calculation, simulation and metrology. In this thesis, we address two of the four subdomains mentioned above, namely those of communication and quantum metrology. The main word bringing together these works is entanglement. Indeed, we show that, thanks to this fundamental property, the performances of standard communication and metrology systems can be surpassed. Thus, we present how to generate these entangled states responsible for the quantum advantage, and this on two technological platforms. The first platform exploited is silicon. The latter, recent for photonics, combines the advantages of maturity allowing the integration of many micrometric structures on the same chip, with efficient non-linear properties, based on third order process. Silicon is then destined for many applications as we show by generating pairs of spectrally demultiplexed entangled photons directly compatible with standard telecommunication networks. The second platform we present is lithium niobate. The latter, widely used in many quantum photonics demonstrations, has a very important efficiency of entangled photon pairs generation, notably thanks to the exploitation of second order non-linear process. We detail an experiment of hyper-entangled states generation, which, like silicon, is oriented towards the domain of quantum communication. Finally, we also exploit these pairs of entangled photons combined with quantum interferometry methods to realize a quantum metrology experiment. The purpose is to measure with unprecedented precision the refractive indices difference of dual-core fibers.
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Florent Mazeas. Génération et manipulation d'états photoniques intriqués pour la communication et la métrologie quantiques. Physique Quantique [quant-ph]. Université Côte d'Azur, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018AZUR4092⟩. ⟨tel-02054679⟩

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