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Modélisation de l'interaction dynamique protéines Tau - microtubules

Abstract : Alzheimer’s disease, some frontotemporal dementias such as the Pick’s disease are examples of neurodegenerative diseases called "Tauopathies" which are characterized by the presence of intracellular aggregates of Tau-proteins in the brain of patients. The formation of such aggregates would result from the loss of the normal functions of the Tau-proteins to properly organize the microtubule network within the axon ; which leads to a progressive loss of microtubule’s mass within the axons, the disorganization of the axonal transport and at the end, the cell death. To understand the Tauopathies, we have to understand :- the dynamic of microtubules which is controlled by the mechanisms of the dynamic instability in which microtubules switch between a phase of growth (polymerization of GTP) and a phase of shrinkage (dissociation of GDP)- the interaction between Tau-proteins and microtubules which play an important role in the polymerization, stabilization and spatial organization of microtubules within the axonal network.The objective of this work is to build and consolidate the blocks in order to go to precise modeling of the interaction of microtubules with a dynamic population of Tau-proteins. To this purpose, two problems were considered : (i) the intrinsic dynamic of microtubules (i.e., in absence of Tau-proteins) and (ii) the interaction between Tau-proteins and a stabilized-microtubules (i.e., in absence of dynamic instability)In order to this, the work has been done according to two approaches :- Theoretical : development of mathematical models describing the different process.- Simulation : development of Monte-Carlo programs (under Matlab)The main results have been organized in two main parts :1) Development of a mesoscopic model describing the dynamic instability of microtubules at the scale of the tubulin. This model describes the non-Markovian dynamic of microtubules and the characteristics are compatible with the experimental observations.2) Development of a model describing the dynamical decoration of a microtubule by a population of Tau-proteins. The characteristics of the model are based, for the construction, and compatible with the experimental observations.
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Jordan Hervy. Modélisation de l'interaction dynamique protéines Tau - microtubules. Biophysique [physics.bio-ph]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAY062⟩. ⟨tel-02053825⟩

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