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Mechanisms of gustatory perception of dietary lipids : cross-talk with bitter taste and endocannabinoid receptors

Abstract : Obesity is one of the major public health problems at the beginning of the 21st century. Its prevalence is increasing steadily, especially among children. This observation is not insignificant because obesity is generally associated with various serious pathologies (type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cancer, etc.). Thus, investigations into the mechanisms involved in the taste perception of dietary lipids could shed light on their roles in the incidence of obesity.Several studies have demonstrated the role of endocannabinoids and bitter foods in obesity. Thus, we studied the cross-talk of cannabinoid receptors and bitter taste with lipid taste. This thesis has two components: cannabinoid receptors (CB1R), bitter taste and their interactions with lipid receptors.In the first part, we studied the regulatory role of CB1R. In the present study, behavioral tests on CB1R-/- mice and wild-type (WT) mice showed that the invalidation of the Cb1r gene was associated with a low preference for solutions containing rapeseed oil or a long chain fatty acid (LCFA) such as linoleic acid (LA). Administration of rimonabant, a CB1R inverse agonist, in mice also resulted in a low preference for dietary fatty acids. No differences in the expression of CD36 and GPR120 proteins were observed in the taste buds cells of the WT and CB1R-/- mice. Calcium signaling via CD36 in the taste bud cells of CB1R-/- mice decreased significantly compared with those observed in the taste cells of WT mice. The taste bud cells of CB1R-/- mice also show a significant decrease in Pro-glucagon and Glp-1r mRNA and a low basal level of GLP-1. We report that CB1R is involved in the perception of fat taste via calcium signaling and secretion of GLP-1.In the second part, we first characterized the phenotype of human fungiform cells (HTC-8). Indeed, the project of my thesis includes the characterization on the molecular scale of bitter and lipid receptors and their cross-talk in these cells (collaboration BRAIN, Germany). We have demonstrated that HTC-8 cells express PLCβ2 and α-gustducin at the mRNA and protein level. They also express TAS2R16 and TAS2R38 and these same cells co-express CD36 and GPR120. Then, we studied signaling via these receptors using linoleic acid, a CD36 and GPR120 agonist, sinigrin, TAS2R16 agonist and TAS2R38, salicin, TAS2R16 receptor agonist, and phenylthiocarbamide, TAS2R38 receptor agonist. In addition, calcium signal studies have shown that downstream fatty signaling shares a common path with downstream bitter taste signaling, highlighting a cross-talk between these two taste modalities.Although we have shown the cross-talk between bitter and lipid taste modalities, we still have to study these phenomena at the level of the organism. These results, already, show that the bitter taste and the cannabinoid-1 receptor are related to the taste sensitivity of fat and must be taken into account for the management of obesity
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Léa Brissard. Mechanisms of gustatory perception of dietary lipids : cross-talk with bitter taste and endocannabinoid receptors. Tissues and Organs [q-bio.TO]. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018UBFCK071⟩. ⟨tel-02053165⟩

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