I. P. Williams, KBC Advanced Technologies

Y. L. Lo, H. B. Wang, and M. Dembo, Cell movement is guided by the rigidity of the substrate, Biophys. J, vol.79, issue.1, pp.144-152, 2000.

M. L. Gardel, I. C. Schneider, Y. Aratyn-schaus, and C. M. Waterman, Mechanical Integration of Actin and Adhesion Dynamics in Cell Migration, Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol, vol.26, issue.1, pp.315-333, 2010.

T. Yeung, Effects of substrate stiffness on cell morphology, cytoskeletal structure, and adhesion, Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton, vol.60, issue.1, pp.24-34, 2005.

K. Franze, The mechanical control of nervous system development, Development, vol.140, issue.15, pp.3069-3077, 2013.

T. Iskratsch, H. Wolfenson, and M. P. Sheetz, Appreciating force and shape-the rise of mechanotransduction in cell biology, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol, vol.15, issue.12, pp.825-833, 2014.

C. C. Dufort, M. J. Paszek, and V. M. Weaver, Balancing forces: Architectural control of mechanotransduction, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol, vol.12, issue.5, pp.308-319, 2011.

D. E. Jaalouk and J. Lammerding, Mechanotransduction gone awry, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol, vol.10, issue.1, pp.63-73, 2009.

T. Wyatt, B. Baum, and G. Charras, A question of time: Tissue adaptation to mechanical forces, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol, vol.38, pp.68-73, 2016.

S. Chien, Mechanotransduction and endothelial cell homeostasis: the wisdom of the cell, AJP Hear. Circ. Physiol, vol.292, issue.3, pp.1209-1224, 2006.

J. M. Barnes, L. Przybyla, and V. M. Weaver, Tissue mechanics regulate brain development, homeostasis and disease, J. Cell Sci, vol.130, issue.1, pp.71-82, 2017.

S. J. Cooper, From Claude Bernard to Walter Cannon. Emergence of the concept of homeostasis, Appetite, vol.51, issue.3, pp.419-427, 2008.

K. J. Davies, Adaptive homeostasis, Mol. Aspects Med, vol.49, pp.1-7, 2016.

M. J. Bissell, H. G. Hall, and G. Parry, How does the extracellular matrix direct gene expression?, J. Theor. Biol, vol.99, issue.1, pp.31-68, 1982.

G. S. Schultz, J. M. Davidson, R. S. Kirsner, P. Bornstein, and I. M. Herman, Dynamic reciprocity in the wound microenvironment, Wound Repair Regen, vol.19, issue.2, pp.134-148, 2011.

R. A. Brown, R. Prajapati, D. A. Mcgrouther, I. V. Yannas, and M. Eastwood, Tensional homeostasis in dermal fibroblasts: Mechanical responses to mechanical loading in threedimensional substrates, J. Cell. Physiol, vol.175, issue.3, pp.323-332, 1998.

J. D. Humphrey, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Schwartz, Mechanotransduction and extracellular matrix homeostasis, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol, vol.15, issue.12, pp.802-812, 2014.

P. Ciarletta, M. Destrade, and A. L. Gower, On residual stresses and homeostasis: An elastic theory of functional adaptation in living matter, Sci. Rep, vol.6, pp.1-8, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01312485

J. W. Tamkun, Structure of integrin, a glycoprotein involved in the transmembrane linkage between fibronectin and actin, Cell, vol.46, issue.2, pp.271-282, 1986.

W. Van-dyke and B. Maddow, Integrin Structure , Activation , and Interactions, pp.1-15, 1945.

D. Choquet, D. P. Felsenfeld, and M. P. Sheetz, Extracellular matrix rigidity causes strengthening of integrin-cytoskeleton linkages, Cell, vol.88, issue.1, pp.39-48, 1997.

W. H. Goldmann, Mechanotransduction and focal adhesions, Cell Biol. Int, vol.36, issue.7, pp.649-652, 2012.

D. E. Leckband and J. De-rooij, Cadherin Adhesion and Mechanotransduction, Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol, vol.30, issue.1, pp.291-315, 2014.

Y. L. Dorland and S. Huveneers, Cell-cell junctional mechanotransduction in endothelial remodeling, Cell. Mol. Life Sci, vol.74, issue.2, pp.279-292, 2016.

P. A. Gottlieb, C. Bae, and F. Sachs, Gating the mechanical channel Piezo1: A comparison between whole-cell and patch recording, Channels, vol.6, issue.4, pp.282-289, 2012.

P. Delmas and B. Coste, XMechano-gated ion channels in sensory systems, Cell, vol.155, issue.2, pp.278-284, 2013.

G. V. Shivashankar, Mechanosignaling to the Cell Nucleus and Gene Regulation, Annu. Rev. Biophys, vol.40, issue.1, pp.361-378, 2011.

N. Wang, J. D. Tytell, and D. E. Ingber, Mechanotransduction at a distance: Mechanically coupling the extracellular matrix with the nucleus, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol, vol.10, issue.1, pp.75-82, 2009.

A. P. Navarro, M. A. Collins, and E. S. Folker, The nucleus is a conserved mechanosensation and mechanoresponse organelle, Cytoskeleton, vol.73, issue.2, pp.59-67, 2016.

I. Dupin and S. Etienne-manneville, Nuclear positioning: Mechanisms and functions, Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol, vol.43, issue.12, pp.1698-1707, 2011.

J. G. Snedeker, The nuclear envelope as a mechanostat: a central cog in the machinery of cell and tissue regulation?, Bonekey Rep, vol.3, p.562, 2014.

B. C. Isenberg, P. A. Dimilla, M. Walker, S. Kim, and J. Y. Wong, Vascular smooth muscle cell durotaxis depends on substrate stiffness gradient strength, Biophys. J, vol.97, issue.5, pp.1313-1322, 2009.

J. Lafaurie-janvore, ESCRT-III assembly and cytokinetic abscission are induced by tension release in the intercellular bridge, Science (80-. ), vol.340, issue.6127, pp.1625-1629, 2013.

A. J. Engler, S. Sen, H. L. Sweeney, and D. E. Discher, Matrix Elasticity Directs Stem Cell Lineage Specification, Cell, vol.126, issue.4, pp.677-689, 2006.

P. W. Oakes, S. Banerjee, M. C. Marchetti, and M. L. Gardel, Geometry regulates traction stresses in adherent cells, Biophys. J, vol.107, issue.4, pp.825-833, 2014.

E. Papusheva and C. Heisenberg, Spatial organization of adhesion: force-dependent regulation and function in tissue morphogenesis, EMBO J, vol.29, issue.16, pp.2753-2768, 2010.

M. Murrell, P. W. Oakes, M. Lenz, and M. L. Gardel, Forcing cells into shape: The mechanics of actomyosin contractility, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol, vol.16, issue.8, pp.486-498, 2015.

T. Das, K. Safferling, S. Rausch, N. Grabe, H. Boehm et al., A molecular mechanotransduction pathway regulates collective migration of epithelial cells, Nat. Cell Biol, vol.17, issue.3, pp.276-287, 2015.

H. Ennomani, Architecture and Connectivity Govern Actin Network Contractility, Curr. Biol, vol.26, issue.5, pp.616-626, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01281708

N. C. Gauthier, T. A. Masters, and M. P. Sheetz, Mechanical feedback between membrane tension and dynamics, Trends Cell Biol, vol.22, issue.10, pp.527-535, 2012.

A. Ron, Cell shape information is transduced through tension-independent mechanisms, Nat. Commun, vol.8, issue.1, 2017.

S. Weng,

P. W. Oakes, Optogenetic control of RhoA reveals zyxin-mediated elasticity of stress fibres, Nat. Commun, vol.8, 2017.

A. J. Ridley and A. Hall, Signal transduction pathways regulating Rho-mediated stress fibre formation: requirement for a tyrosine kinase, Embo J, vol.13, issue.11, pp.2600-2610, 1994.

M. Chrzanowska-wodnicka and K. Burridge, Drives the Contractility Formation of Stress Fibers and Focal Adhesions, J. Cell Biol, vol.133, issue.6, pp.1403-1415, 1996.

C. B. Khatiwala, P. D. Kim, S. R. Peyton, and A. J. Putnam, ECM compliance regulates osteogenesis by influencing MAPK signaling downstream of RhoA and ROCK, J. Bone Miner. Res, vol.24, issue.5, pp.886-898, 2009.

A. M. Handorf, Y. Zhou, M. A. Halanski, and W. J. Li, Tissue stiffness dictates development, homeostasis, and disease progression, Organogenesis, vol.11, issue.1, pp.1-15, 2015.

K. A. Moore, Control of basement membrane remodeling and epithelial branching morphogenesis in embryonic lung by Rho and cytoskeletal tension, Dev. Dyn, vol.232, issue.2, pp.268-281, 2005.

A. Mehdizadeh and A. Norouzpour, New insights in atherosclerosis: Endothelial shear stress as promoter rather than initiator, Med. Hypotheses, vol.73, issue.6, pp.989-993, 2009.

P. Nigro, J. Abe, and B. C. Berk, Flow Shear Stress and Atherosclerosis: A Matter of Site Specificity, Antioxid. Redox Signal, vol.15, issue.5, pp.1405-1414, 2011.

R. K. Jain, J. D. Martin, and T. Stylianopoulos, The Role of Mechanical Forces in Tumor Growth and Therapy, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng, vol.16, issue.1, pp.321-346, 2014.

D. D. Chan, Mechanostasis in apoptosis and medicine, Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol, vol.106, issue.3, pp.517-524, 2011.

F. , Fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, and wound contraction, J. Cell Biol, vol.124, issue.4, pp.401-404, 1994.

A. Asnacios and O. Hamant, The mechanics behind cell polarity, Trends Cell Biol, vol.22, issue.11, pp.584-591, 2012.

K. A. Kilian, B. Bugarija, B. T. Lahn, and M. Mrksich, Geometric cues for directing the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, vol.107, issue.11, pp.4872-4877, 2010.

C. M. Nelson, M. M. Vanduijn, J. L. Inman, D. A. Fletcher, and M. J. Bissell, Tissue Geometry Determines Sites of Mammary Branching Morphogenesis in Organotypic Cultures, pp.2-5

M. J. Bissell and D. Radisky, Putting tumours in context, Nat. Rev. Cancer, vol.1, issue.1, pp.46-54, 2001.

E. Camand, M. P. Morel, A. Faissner, C. Sotelo, and I. Dusart, Long-term changes in the molecular composition of the glial scar and progressive increase of serotoninergic fibre sprouting after hemisection of the mouse spinal cord, Eur. J. Neurosci, vol.20, issue.5, pp.1161-1176, 2004.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00080982

D. T. Butcher, T. Alliston, and V. M. Weaver, A tense situation: Forcing tumour progression, Nat. Rev. Cancer, vol.9, issue.2, pp.108-122, 2009.

S. Suresh, Biomechanics and biophysics of cancer cells, Acta Mater, vol.55, issue.12, pp.3989-4014, 2007.

J. S. Allingham, R. Smith, and I. Rayment, The structural basis of blebbistatin inhibition and specificity for myosin II, Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol, vol.12, issue.4, pp.378-379, 2005.

H. Affinity and S. Associated, Communication, pp.835-839, 1979.

, No Title

E. J. Ezratty, M. A. Partridge, and G. G. Gundersen, Microtubule-induced focal adhesion disassembly is mediated by dynamin and focal adhesion kinase, Nat. Cell Biol, vol.7, issue.6, pp.581-590, 2005.

T. Ishizaki, Pharmacological properties of Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of rho-associated kinases, Mol. Pharmacol, vol.57, issue.5, pp.976-983, 2000.

M. Takata, Fasudil, a rho kinase inhibitor, limits motor neuron loss in experimental models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Br. J. Pharmacol, vol.170, issue.2, pp.341-351, 2013.

M. Honjo, A myosin light chain kinase inhibitor, ML-9, lowers the intraocular pressure in rabbit eyes, Exp. Eye Res, vol.75, issue.2, pp.135-142, 2002.

A. J. Rodriguez, S. M. Shenoy, R. H. Singer, and J. Condeelis, Visualization of mRNA translation in living cells, J. Cell Biol, vol.175, issue.1, pp.67-76, 2006.

C. T. Mierke, Vinculin facilitates cell invasion into three-dimensional collagen matrices, J. Biol. Chem, vol.285, issue.17, pp.13121-13130, 2010.

G. Chen, Z. Hou, D. R. Gulbranson, and J. A. Thomson, Actin-myosin contractility is responsible for the reduced viability of dissociated human embryonic stem cells, Cell Stem Cell, vol.7, issue.2, pp.240-248, 2010.

G. W. Schmid-schönbein, K. L. Sung, H. Tözeren, R. Skalak, and S. Chien, Passive mechanical properties of human leukocytes, Biophys. J, vol.36, issue.1, pp.243-256, 1981.

E. Evans and A. Yeung, Apparent viscosity and cortical tension of blood granulocytes determined by micropipet aspiration, Biophys. J, vol.56, issue.1, pp.151-160, 1989.

W. H. Goldmann, Mechanical manipulation of animal cells: Cell indentation, Biotechnol. Lett, vol.22, issue.6, pp.431-435, 2000.

H. H. Vandenburgh, S. Swasdison, and P. Karlisch, Computer-aided mechanogenesis of skeletal muscle organs from single cells, FASEB J, vol.5, issue.13, p.2860, 1991.

P. F. Davies and S. C. Tripathi, Mechanical stress mechanisms and the cell. An endothelial paradigm, Circ. Res, vol.72, issue.2, pp.239-245, 1993.

M. J. Levesque and R. M. Nerem, The study of rheological effects on vascular endothelial cells in culture, Biorheology, vol.26, issue.2, pp.345-357, 1989.

S. C. Kuo and M. P. Sheetz, Force of single kinesin groups measured with optical tweezers, Science (80-. ), vol.260, pp.232-234, 1993.

A. R. Bausch, W. Möller, and E. Sackmann, Measurement of local viscoelasticity and forces in living cells by magnetic tweezers, Biophys. J, vol.76, issue.1 I, pp.573-579, 1999.

F. J. Alenghat, B. Fabry, K. Y. Tsai, W. H. Goldmann, and D. E. Ingber, Analysis of cell mechanics in single vinculin-deficient cells using a magnetic tweezer, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun, vol.277, issue.1, pp.93-99, 2000.

T. Mizutani, H. Haga, and K. Kawabata, Cellular stiffness response to external deformation: Tensional homeostasis in a single fibroblast, Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton, vol.59, issue.4, pp.242-248, 2004.

E. A. Almeida, Matrix survival signaling: from fibronectin via focal adhesion kinase to cJun NH(2)-terminal kinase, J. Cell Biol, vol.149, issue.3, pp.741-54, 2000.

K. A. Demali, K. Wennerberg, and K. Burridge, Integrin signaling to the actin cytoskeleton, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol, vol.15, issue.5, pp.572-582, 2003.

R. Kaunas and S. Deguchi, Multiple roles for myosin II in tensional homeostasis under mechanical loading, Cell. Mol. Bioeng, vol.4, issue.2, pp.182-191, 2011.

M. J. Paszek, Tensional homeostasis and the malignant phenotype, Cancer Cell, vol.8, issue.3, pp.241-254, 2005.

A. J. Banes, Mechanoreception at the cellular level: the detection, interpretation, and diversity of responses to mechanical signals, Biochem. Cell Biol, vol.73, issue.7-8, pp.349-365, 1995.

K. D. Webster, W. P. Ng, and D. A. Fletcher, Tensional homeostasis in single fibroblasts, Biophys. J, vol.107, issue.1, pp.146-155, 2014.

A. J. Zollinger, Dependence of Tensional Homeostasis on Cell Type and on Cell-Cell Interactions, 2018.

S. Weng, Y. Shao, W. Chen, and J. Fu, Mechanosensitive subcellular rheostasis drives emergent single-cell mechanical homeostasis, Nat. Mater, vol.15, issue.9, pp.961-967, 2016.

T. Komatsu, I. Kukelyansky, J. M. Mccaffery, T. Ueno, L. C. Varela et al., Organellespecific, rapid induction of molecular activities and membrane tethering, Nat. Methods, vol.7, issue.3, pp.206-208, 2010.

J. E. Toettcher, O. D. Weiner, and W. A. Lim, Using optogenetics to interrogate the dynamic control of signal transmission by the Ras/Erk module, Cell, vol.155, issue.6, pp.1422-1434, 2013.

G. Loirand and P. Pacaud, Small GTPases Involvement of Rho GTPases and their regulators in the pathogenesis of hypertension Involvement of Rho GTPases and their regulators in the pathogenesis of hypertension, 2017.

J. E. Toettcher, C. A. Voigt, O. D. Weiner, and W. A. Lim, The promise of optogenetics in cell biology: Interrogating molecular circuits in space and time, Nat. Methods, vol.8, issue.1, pp.35-38, 2011.

Y. Sano, W. Watanabe, and S. Matsunaga, Chromophore-assisted laser inactivation-towards a spatiotemporal-functional analysis of proteins, and the ablation of chromatin, organelle and cell function, J. Cell Sci, vol.127, issue.8, pp.1621-1629, 2014.

M. Rauzi, P. Verant, T. Lecuit, and P. F. Lenne, Nature and anisotropy of cortical forces orienting Drosophila tissue morphogenesis, Nat. Cell Biol, vol.10, issue.12, pp.1401-1410, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00345905

S. Sardari, Study break, Iran. Biomed.J, vol.22, issue.1, pp.67-68, 2016.

G. Nagel, Channelrhodopsin-1: A light-gated proton channel in green algae, Science (80. ), vol.296, issue.5577, pp.2395-2398, 2002.

G. Nagel, Channelrhodopsin-2, a directly light-gated cation-selective membrane channel, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, vol.100, pp.13940-13945, 2003.

E. S. Boyden, F. Zhang, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, and K. Deisseroth, Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity, Nat. Neurosci, vol.8, issue.9, pp.1263-1268, 2005.

K. Deisseroth, Controlling the brain with light, Sci. Am, vol.303, issue.5, pp.48-55, 2010.

J. E. Toettcher, D. Gong, W. A. Lim, and O. D. Weiner, Light-based feedback for controlling intracellular signaling dynamics, Nat. Methods, vol.8, issue.10, pp.837-839, 2011.

D. Tischer and O. D. Weiner, Illuminating cell signalling with optogenetic tools, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol, vol.15, issue.8, pp.551-558, 2014.

A. Levskaya, O. D. Weiner, W. A. Lim, and C. A. Voigt, Spatiotemporal Control of Cell Signalling Using A Light-Switchable Protein Interaction, Nature, vol.461, issue.7266, pp.997-1001, 2009.

M. J. Kennedy, R. M. Hughes, L. A. Peteya, J. W. Schwartz, M. D. Ehlers et al., Rapid blue light induction of protein interaction in living cells, Nat. Methods, vol.7, issue.12, pp.973-975, 2010.

Y. I. Wu, A genetically encoded photoactivatable Rac controls the motility of living cells, Nature, vol.461, issue.7260, pp.104-108, 2009.

M. Yazawa, A. M. Sadaghiani, B. Hsueh, and R. E. Dolmetsch, Induction of protein-protein interactions in live cells using light, Nat. Biotechnol, vol.27, issue.10, pp.941-945, 2009.

A. Manuscript, Biology, vol.9, issue.4, pp.379-384, 2012.

B. Kim and M. Z. Lin, Optobiology: optical control of biological processes via protein engineering, Biochem. Soc. Trans, vol.41, issue.5, pp.1183-1188, 2013.

X. X. Zhou, H. K. Chung, A. J. Lam, and M. Z. Lin, Optical control of protein activity by fluorescent protein domains, Science (80-. ), vol.338, issue.6108, pp.810-814, 2013.

X. X. Zhou, H. K. Chung, A. J. Lam, and M. Z. Lin, Optical control of protein activity by fluorescent protein domains, Science (80-. ), vol.338, issue.6108, pp.810-814, 2012.

B. R. Rost, F. Schneider-warme, D. Schmitz, and P. Hegemann, Optogenetic Tools for Subcellular Applications in Neuroscience, Neuron, vol.96, issue.3, pp.572-603, 2017.

H. Park, S. Lee, and W. D. Heo, Protein inactivation by optogenetic trapping in living cells, Methods Mol. Biol, vol.1408, issue.6, pp.363-376, 2016.

S. Konermann, Optical control of mammalian endogenous transcription and epigenetic states, Nature, vol.500, issue.7463, pp.472-476, 2013.

X. Wang, X. Chen, and Y. Yang, Spatiotemporal control of gene expression by a lightswitchable transgene system, Nat. Methods, vol.9, issue.3, pp.266-269, 2012.

E. M. Zhao, Optogenetic regulation of engineered cellular metabolism for microbial chemical production, Nature, vol.555, issue.7698, pp.683-687, 2018.

C. Janetopoulos and P. Devreotes, Phosphoinositide signaling plays a key role in cytokinesis, J. Cell Biol, vol.174, issue.4, pp.485-490, 2006.

G. Guglielmi, J. D. Barry, W. Huber, and S. De-renzis, An Optogenetic Method to Modulate Cell Contractility during Tissue Morphogenesis, Dev. Cell, vol.35, issue.5, pp.646-660, 2015.

M. Raftopoulou and A. Hall, Cell migration: Rho GTPases lead the way, Dev. Biol, vol.265, issue.1, pp.23-32, 2004.

M. V. Rao, P. H. Chu, K. M. Hahn, and R. Zaidel-bar, An optogenetic tool for the activation of endogenous diaphanous-related formins induces thickening of stress fibers without an increase in contractility, Cytoskeleton, vol.70, issue.7, pp.394-407, 2013.

E. Wagner and M. Glotzer, Local RhoA activation induces cytokinetic furrows independent of spindle position and cell cycle stage, J. Cell Biol, vol.213, issue.6, pp.641-649, 2016.

L. Valon, Predictive Spatiotemporal Manipulation of Signaling Perturbations Using Optogenetics, Biophys. J, vol.109, issue.9, pp.1785-1797, 2015.

L. Valon, A. Mar�n-llaurad�, T. Wyatt, G. Charras, and X. Trepat, Optogenetic control of cellular forces and mechanotransduction, Nat. Commun, vol.8, 2017.

M. Yoshigi, L. M. Hoffman, C. C. Jensen, H. J. Yost, and M. C. Beckerle, Mechanical force mobilizes zyxin from focal adhesions to actin filaments and regulates cytoskeletal reinforcement, J. Cell Biol, vol.171, issue.2, pp.209-215, 2005.

L. Valon,

A. K. Harris, P. Wild, D. Stopak, N. Series, and N. Apr, Silicone Rubber Substrata : A New Wrinkle in the Study of Cell Locomotion Silicone Rubber Substrata : A New Wrinkle in the Study of Cell Locomotion, vol.208, pp.177-179, 2008.

T. Oliver, K. Jacobson, and M. Dembo, Traction forces in locomoting cells, Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton, vol.31, issue.3, pp.225-240, 1995.

J. Lee, M. Leonard, T. Liver, A. Ishihara, and K. Jacobson, Traction Forces Generated by Locomting Keratocytes, J. Cell Biol, vol.127, issue.6, pp.1957-1964, 1994.
DOI : 10.1083/jcb.127.6.1957

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc2120302?pdf=render

G. Bao and S. Suresh, Cell and molecular mechanics of biological materials, pp.715-725, 2003.

T. Wakatsuki, M. S. Kolodney, G. I. Zahalak, and E. L. Elson, Cell mechanics studied by a reconstituted model tissue, Biophys. J, vol.79, issue.5, pp.2353-2368, 2000.

K. S. Kolahi, Effect of substrate stiffness on early mouse embryo development, PLoS One, vol.7, issue.7, 2012.

L. D. Lifshitz, Theory of Elasticity

M. Dembo and Y. L. Wang, Stresses at the cell-to-substrate interface during locomotion of fibroblasts, Biophys. J, vol.76, issue.4, pp.2307-2316, 1999.

J. P. Butler, I. M. Tolic-norrelykke, B. Fabry, and J. J. Fredberg, Traction fields, moments, and strain energy that cells exert on their surroundings, AJP Cell Physiol, vol.282, issue.3, pp.595-605, 2002.

X. Tang, A. Tofangchi, S. V. Anand, and T. A. Saif, A Novel Cell Traction Force Microscopy to Study Multi-Cellular System, PLoS Comput. Biol, vol.10, issue.6, 2014.

K. Burton and D. L. Taylor, Traction forces of cytokinesis measured with optically modified elastic substrata, Nature, vol.385, issue.6615, pp.450-454, 1997.

M. Dembo and T. Oliver, Imaging the Traction Stresses Exerted by Locomoting Cells with the Elastic Substratum Method, Biophys. J, vol.70, pp.2008-2022, 1996.

B. Sabass, M. L. Gardel, C. M. Waterman, and U. S. Schwarz, High resolution traction force microscopy based on experimental and computational advances, Biophys. J, vol.94, issue.1, pp.207-220, 2008.

U. S. Schwarz, N. Q. Balaban, D. Riveline, A. Bershadsky, B. Geiger et al., Calculation of forces at focal adhesions from elastic substrate data: The effect of localized force and the need for regularization, Biophys. J, vol.83, issue.3, pp.1380-1394, 2002.

H. B. Wang, M. Dembo, S. K. Hanks, and Y. Wang, Focal adhesion kinase is involved in mechanosensing during fibroblast migration, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A, vol.98, issue.20, pp.11295-300, 2001.

J. H. Wang and B. Li, The principles and biological applications of cell traction force microscopy, World, vol.29, pp.449-458, 2010.

K. Mandal and D. D. , Contribution des propriétés du micro-environnement sur l ' adhésion cellulaire To cite this version : HAL Id : tel-00870404 Role of ECM Physical Properties on Force Distribution and Cell In-ternal Organization, 2013.

Q. Tseng, A new micropatterning method of soft substrates reveals that different tumorigenic signals can promote or reduce cell contraction levels, Lab Chip, vol.11, issue.13, p.2231, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00611335

T. Vignaud, H. Ennomani, and M. Théry, Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Micropatterning, Methods Cell Biol, vol.120, pp.93-116, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00982140

C. S. Chen, J. L. Alonso, E. Ostuni, G. M. Whitesides, and D. E. Ingber, Cell shape provides global control of focal adhesion assembly, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun, vol.307, issue.2, pp.355-361, 2003.

R. Mcbeath, D. M. Pirone, C. M. Nelson, K. Bhadriraju, and C. S. Chen, Cell shape, cytoskeletal tension, and RhoA regulate stemm cell lineage commitment, Dev. Cell, vol.6, pp.483-495, 2004.

L. K. Wrobel, T. R. Fray, J. E. Molloy, J. J. Adams, M. P. Armitage et al., Micropatterning tractional forces in living cells, Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton, vol.52, issue.2, pp.97-106, 2002.

V. Damljanovi?, B. C. Lagerholm, and K. Jacobson, Bulk and micropatterned conjugation of extracellular matrix proteins to characterized polyacrylamide substrates for cell mechanotransduction assays, Biotechniques, vol.39, issue.6, pp.847-851, 2005.

C. A. Reinhart-king, M. Dembo, and D. A. Hammer, Endothelial Cell Traction Forces on RGD-Derivatized Polyarylamide Substrata, Langmuir, vol.19, issue.7, pp.1573-1579, 2003.

J. L. Tan, J. Tien, D. M. Pirone, D. S. Gray, K. Bhadriraju et al., Cells lying on a bed of microneedles: An approach to isolate mechanical force, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, vol.100, issue.4, pp.1484-1489, 2003.

N. Gavara, P. Roca-cusachs, R. Sunyer, R. Farré, and D. Navajas, Mapping cell-matrix stresses during stretch reveals inelastic reorganization of the cytoskeleton, Biophys. J, vol.95, issue.1, pp.464-471, 2008.

A. D. Rape, W. H. Guo, and Y. L. Wang, The regulation of traction force in relation to cell shape and focal adhesions, Biomaterials, vol.32, issue.8, pp.2043-2051, 2011.

K. Mandal, I. Wang, E. Vitiello, L. A. Orellana, and M. Balland, Cell dipole behaviour revealed by ECM sub-cellular geometry, Nat. Commun, vol.5, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02063891

K. K. Parker, Directional control of lamellipodia extension by constraining cell shape and orienting cell tractional forces, FASEB J, vol.16, issue.10, pp.1195-1204, 2002.

X. Jiang, D. A. Bruzewicz, A. P. Wong, M. Piel, and G. M. Whitesides, Directing cell migration with asymmetric micropatterns, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, vol.102, issue.4, pp.975-978, 2005.

B. Vianay, Variation in traction forces during cell cycle progression, Biol. Cell, vol.110, issue.4, pp.91-96, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01978711

N. Wang, Mechanical behavior in living cells consistent with the tensegrity model, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, vol.98, pp.7765-7770, 2001.

G. Lukinavi?ius, Fluorogenic probes for live-cell imaging of the cytoskeleton, Nat. Methods, vol.11, issue.7, pp.731-733, 2014.

P. J. Albert and U. S. Schwarz, Dynamics of cell shape and forces on micropatterned substrates predicted by a cellular Potts model, Biophys. J, vol.106, issue.11, pp.2340-2352, 2014.

M. Théry, A. Pépin, E. Dressaire, Y. Chen, and M. Bornens, Cell distribution of stress fibres in response to the geometry of the adhesive environment, Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton, vol.63, issue.6, pp.341-355, 2006.

E. Kassianidou, C. A. Brand, U. S. Schwarz, and S. Kumar, Geometry and network connectivity govern the mechanics of stress fibers, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, vol.114, issue.10, pp.2622-2627, 2017.

K. Burridge and J. R. Feramisco, Microinjection and localization of a 130K protein in living fibroblasts: a relationship to actin and fibronectin, Cell, vol.19, issue.3, pp.587-595, 1980.

E. P. Canovic, A. J. Zollinger, S. N. Tam, M. L. Smith, and D. Stamenovi, Tensional homeostasis in endothelial cells is a multicellular phenomenon, Am J Physiol Cell Physiol, vol.311, pp.528-535, 2016.

J. D. Humphrey, Vascular adaptation and mechanical homeostasis at tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels, Cell Biochem. Biophys, vol.50, issue.2, pp.53-78, 2008.

M. Crisp, Coupling of the nucleus and cytoplasm: Role of the LINC complex, J. Cell Biol, vol.172, issue.1, pp.41-53, 2006.

T. Metzger, MAP and kinesin-dependent nuclear positioning is required for skeletal muscle function, Nature, vol.484, issue.7392, pp.120-124, 2012.

T. P. Driscoll, B. D. Cosgrove, S. J. Heo, Z. E. Shurden, and R. L. Mauck, Cytoskeletal to Nuclear Strain Transfer Regulates YAP Signaling in Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Biophys. J, vol.108, issue.12, pp.2783-2793, 2015.

D. M. Graham and K. Burridge, Mechanotransduction and nuclear function, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol, vol.40, pp.98-105, 2016.