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Etude de la survivabilité des débris spatiaux en phase de rentrée atmosphérique (oxydation et émissivité)

Abstract : To better assess the survivability of space debris when they fall at ground (final mass and casualty area), the DEBRISK tool from CNES needs to feed its material database with properties at high temperatures (oxidation and emissivity mainly). Thus, this thesis was conducted at the PROMES-CNRS laboratory on the experimental study of oxidation in atmospheric re-entry conditions (air plasma, high temperature and low pressure) for four metallic alloys which are the most difficult to destroy (Invar 36, TA6V, 316L and 304L).The total directional emissivity was measured at high temperature for all the materials and the totalhemispherical emissivity calculated, on non-oxidized samples, in high vacuum, but also, on pre-oxidized samples under air plasma and on in situ oxidized ones in standard air. The experimental results have shown for all the materials that the oxidation at high temperature under air plasma was not significant, due to the obtaining of small mass gains or losses (depending of the alloy) compared to the initial masses. However, oxidation creates a huge modification of the surface – composition and morphology – that leads to a significant increase of the total emissivity of oxidized materials compared to the one of virgin samples by a factor 3 or even 4 (depending on the alloy) that can strongly delay the melting process during a trajectory andconsequently the calculation of the final mass and the casualty area. Moreover, it was observed that the emissivity of oxides formed under air plasma was generally 10% higher than those formed in air standard, hence the interest to perform emissivity measurements on pre-oxidized samples under air plasma conditions, representative of the atmospheric re-entry conditions of space debris. Finally, it would be more judicious to implement in the atmospheric reentry tools, the influence of the oxidation under air plasma on the emissivity rather than the kinetics of oxidation obtained.
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Lucile Barka. Etude de la survivabilité des débris spatiaux en phase de rentrée atmosphérique (oxydation et émissivité). Autre. Université de Perpignan, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PERP0042⟩. ⟨tel-02052241⟩

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