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Impacts des entraînements cognitifs sur la cognition chez les adultes âgés : quel avantage de l'entraînement combiné ?

Abstract : Our western society is currently facing an increase in life expectancy, which is leading to a growing aging population. Despite medical advances, there is a deterioration of cognitive functions and physical abilities, which is responsible for a decline in life quality and a loss of autonomy. In addition, the number of neurodegenerative diseases, whose first risk factor is age, is increasing. Today, there is no pharmacological means to effectively counter agerelated cognitive and physical decline. Thus, the objective of this thesis was to test the impact of non-pharmacological methods on cognition, particularly on working memory and executive functions, quality of life, and autonomy. We focused on cognitive and physical training, with the main hypothesis that a combination of these two aspects within the same training would be more effective than a single workout (ie cognitive or physical) insofar as they would generate different but complementary benefits. This thesis work is organized around three studies : Study 1, which aims to investigate the impact of a simple cognitive training compared to a combined cognitive-and-physical training on cognition ; Study 2, which compares the impact of these two same trainings but this time at a cerebral functional level ; Study 3 which investigates the impact of multidimensional intervention in Alzheimer's disease. The results of this thesis work showed, with regard to normal aging, the benefits of both types of training at the behavioral level, in terms of transfer and long-term maintenance. On the other hand, if combined training has resulted in greater transfer, cognitive training alone produces better benefits maintenance over time. Relative to brain function level, benefits were shown on the P100 component, which reflects attentional recruitment solely for the cognitive training group alone. Then, we observed benefits in pathological aging at the level of cognition. To conclude, this thesis work allowed us to show the beneficial effects of cognitive and / or physical training in normal and pathological aging, even if at present we cannot conclude for the superiority of combined training compared to cognitive training.
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Clemence Joubert. Impacts des entraînements cognitifs sur la cognition chez les adultes âgés : quel avantage de l'entraînement combiné ?. Psychologie. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSE2101⟩. ⟨tel-02051350⟩

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