Écologie et déterminisme physique des peuplements de macrophytes dans les lacs naturels peu profonds : application aux grands lacs du littoral aquitain de Carcans-Hourtin, Lacanau, Cazaux-Sanguinet et Parentis-Biscarrosse (Gironde, Landes)

Abstract : Lakeshores zones are of very high ecological value. As they are ecotones between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, lake shoreline and littoral zones are characterized by a high level of biodiversity, including macroscopic aquatic plants known as macrophytes. Plant distribution, abundance and species composition are determined by physical features of lakeshores. This work aims to assess relationships between macrophyte populations and communities and hydromorphological components in shallow lakes at different scales. Plant and environmental variables were modeled or collected on the field in large lakes located along the western French Atlantic coast. Wind and wave action, slope, depth, sediment grain size and organic matter content are well known for their influence on macrophyte species distribution and assemblages. Physical variables can be used to predict the potential distribution of plant communities. Anthropogenic physical disturbances enhances the development of invasive species while they threaten rare and endangered native species. Plant management issues were also highlighted from a long-term field data (fourty years) analysis of macrophyte dynamics in these shallow lakes. Management strategies are needed for the conservation of native species, or even their restoration, and the control of alien species spread in these lakes. Similar in some ways to northern European lakes such as softwater lakes or Lobelia lakes, the ecological processes identified in these Atlantic shallow lakes could foreshadow the future situation for all lakes of the same type in the context of global change. Lakeshore ecosystems gather ecological, economic and societal issues, raising scientific questions and issues about their functioning and the bioindication of their ecological status that needs to be further explored.
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Vincent Bertrin. Écologie et déterminisme physique des peuplements de macrophytes dans les lacs naturels peu profonds : application aux grands lacs du littoral aquitain de Carcans-Hourtin, Lacanau, Cazaux-Sanguinet et Parentis-Biscarrosse (Gironde, Landes). Ecologie, Environnement. Université de Bordeaux, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BORD0389⟩. ⟨tel-02050388⟩

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