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Intérêt du transcriptome de cellules mononucléées périphériques sanguines dans l’étude des mécanismes moléculaires de la maladie de Parkinson

Abstract : Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with genetic determinants not only contributing to rare familial forms of the disease but also involved in prevalent sporadic forms by interacting with environmental factors. Thanks to the identification of these determinants, several molecular mechanisms contributing to the disease have been found highlighting also its complexity. In order to better understand the molecular perturbations underlying the disease, we performed whole transcriptome analyses using microarrays and RNA sequencing (RNAseq) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Parkinson’s disease patients with genetic and sporadic forms of the disease as well as healthy controls.We identified several dysregulated genes in the cells of Parkinson’s disease patients with a G2019S LRRK2 mutation and sporadic patients compared to healthy controls. Pathways and cellular processes related to those genes mainly display disturbances of EIF2 signaling common to G2019S LRRK2 mutation carriers and sporadic patients. These data pinpoint potential perturbations of translation and RNA splicing both related to RNA metabolism. Involvement of RNA metabolism is also observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Parkinson’s disease patients carrying mutations of ATXN2 gene encoding for ataxin-2 protein. It is mainly known as a regulator of the stability, the splicing and the translation of mRNA. Such RNA-mediated perturbations seem to be a common to all forms of Parkinson’s disease and might be a physiological mechanism of the disease. RNAseq data from Parkinson’s disease patients having or not deleterious mutations are in agreement with this hypothesis showing quantitative and qualitative discrepancies of splicing variants inside genes involved in RNA metabolism but also in known molecular pathways of the disease.As a conclusion, our results support the current view of RNA metabolism association with neurodegenerative disorders. In Parkinson’s disease, those alterations could involve quantitative and qualitative variations of splicing variants inside genes involved in RNA metabolism but also in known perturbed molecular pathways of the disease. Further analyses of these dysregulations should be helpful to determine their specificity and evaluate their potential as biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
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Aurore Nkiliza. Intérêt du transcriptome de cellules mononucléées périphériques sanguines dans l’étude des mécanismes moléculaires de la maladie de Parkinson. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LIL2S058⟩. ⟨tel-02050189⟩

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