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Altérations du méthylome au cours du Syndrome de Gougerot Sjögren

Abstract : Sjögren Syndrome (SjS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by a progressive and irreversible damage of exocrine glands, particularly salivary and lacrymal glands. This pathology affects between 0.1 and 3% of the population and is more common in women with a ratio of 9 women for 1 man. In salivary glands, a lymphocytic infiltration is observed and associated with the destruction of the secretory epithelium, which plays a central role in initiation and development of the SjS. The process remains incompletely clarified and contains a strong epigenetic component. Indeed, important disturbances of the process of DNA methylation are observed in epithelial cells and they are linked with the level of lymphocyte infiltration in salivary glands.The objective of this work is to better understand epigenetic changes during the SjS and in particular the DNA methylation/demethylation defects observed in Salivary Gland Epithelial Cells Epithelial (SGEC) and their roles in the pathology development.For that purpose, a global study of DNA methylation was done on 12 patients SGECs with the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina). The 450k HM allows to cover more than 485,000 CpG sites on the whole genome. Bioinformatic analysis allowed us to obtain genes panels which are differentially methylated during this pathological phenomenon. In an interesting way, we identified the potential involvement of the calcic (hypomethylated, known to impact salivation) and WNT pathways (hypermethylated). Besides we were able to identify interferon regulation and the shift from interferon type I to type II with mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma evolution. Furthermore, the simultaneous genomic–epigenomic analysis revealed significant associations between SjS-associated genetic risk factors and epigenetic modifications. Finally, the last part of this work highlights inflammatory environment involvement to control DNA methylation/demethylation in salivary gland epithelial cells.Altogether, alterations of DNA methylation in SGEC may contribute to SjS pathophysiology and evolution to MALT and this in link with the inflammatory environment.
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Amandine Charras. Altérations du méthylome au cours du Syndrome de Gougerot Sjögren. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BRES0049⟩. ⟨tel-02049354⟩

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