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Les aliments céréaliers fermentés africains : un autre moyen de participer à la couverture des besoins en folates

Abstract : Folates represent an essential vitamin in the human diet at all ages, particularly during pregnancy and infancy, as it is required for the production of new cells. In many African countries, the main staple foods are based on cereals, which are always consumed after processing. Fermentation is one of the processing, which could increase folate contents in foods. The objective of this work was to increase folates intake of African people through the consumption of cereal-based fermented foods using fermentation. Seven types of cereal-based fermented foods (CBFF), commonly consumed in West Africa, were investigated in this study. Total folate content of cereal-based fermented ranged between 1.8 and 31.3 µg/100g fresh weight, and was almost always lower than in the raw material (13.8-73.4 µg/100g fresh weight). Folate losses occurred during some processing steps like debranning, soaking and drying steps. However, fermentation was able to increase the folate content in some CBFF. Folate bioaccessibility was assessed using a static in vitro digestion model, and ranged from 23% to 81%. The bioaccessible folate content was influenced by total folate content, the structure of food matrices that modulated folate release, and folate stability during digestion process. Calculations of the contributions of CBFF to the reference nutrient intake for folate showed that folate intakes from these foods would cover a maximum of 8% of the folate requirements for young children. Porridges prepared with starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria selected for the nutritional properties (folate synthesis, starch hydrolysis) had significantly higher folate contents (up to 8.7 µg/100 g fresh matter) than the porridge prepared using the traditional process (2.5-5.4 µg/100 g fresh matter). Back slopping using an inoculum from a spontaneous fermentation also enabled an interesting increase in folate contents (up to 7.4 µg/100 g fresh matter). The bacterial diversity of seven cereal-based fermented foods from Burkina Faso, Ethiopia and Finland were assessed using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Lactic acid bacteria genus, including Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Weissella, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus were the main bacteria present in cereal-based fermented foods. Several potentially pathogenic bacteria, namely, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Erwinia, Escherichia, Klebsiella and Acinetobacter were also found in some intermediary products resulting from storage and wet milling. These microorganisms were reduced by fermentation and finally removed after the cooking step.
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Fabrice Bationo. Les aliments céréaliers fermentés africains : un autre moyen de participer à la couverture des besoins en folates. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université Montpellier, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MONTG065⟩. ⟨tel-02045892⟩

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