Elaboration et évaluation biologique de nouveaux matériaux lignocellulosiques antibactériens

Abstract : The contamination of surfaces by bacteria and the emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains are very worrying problems in different areas such as hospital and food. This contamination begins with the adhesion of pathogenic bacteria on a surface until the formation of biofilms. These biofilms contribute to the emergence of resistances of certain bacterial strains to conventional treatments. To answer these problems of surface contamination, this thesis work focuses on the development of new antibacterial materials based on pulp fibers. In the first part, we focused on the development of an antibacterial paper by grafting, via triazine link, two essential oil compounds, thymol and carvacrol, known for their antibacterial activities. The microbiological evaluation of the developed materials against the two bacterial strains tested, E. coli and S. aureus, showed a bacteriostatic effect. These materials block the bacterial growth thus preventing the biofilms formation. Synergy between thymol and carvacrol grafted onto paper has also been shown. In a second part, our study focused on the development of an antibacterial paper that acquires its activity only after the grafting and formation of "aryl-1,2,3-triazole", the active motif. The grafting is carried out by a reaction of "Click Chemistry", the copper (I)-catalyzed Azide Alkyne Cycloaddition. The antibacterial tests reveal the importance of the aryl substituent, the influence of the contact time and the relevance of using mixtures of materials. The antibacterial activity observed on the thermomechanical pulp fibers is better in both parts. The different results obtained are described in this manuscript.
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Zineb Khaldi. Elaboration et évaluation biologique de nouveaux matériaux lignocellulosiques antibactériens. Autre. Université de Limoges, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LIMO0090⟩. ⟨tel-02045667⟩

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