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Contributions numériques pour l'étude du transport des sédiments sous les mascarets

Abstract : A study of the impact of tidal bores on sediment transport by using the numerical simulation has been done in this work. Using OpenFOAM CFD software, we have generated 17 numerical simulations of tidal bores with various values of Froude number Fr, ranging from 0.99 to 1.66. Two types of tidal bores, undular and breaking, have been covered in these 17 numerical simulations. We have studied the behavior of two types of sediment particles, non-cohesive and cohesive sediment particles. For the non-cohesive sediment particles, we have resolved the Maxey and Riley equations to study the influence of undular tidal bores on the trajectory of non cohesive sediment particles. Using the fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme, the method tracker can solve the Maxey and Riley equations that requires the information of velocity fields at time t. For the cohesive sediment particles, we have calculated the distribution of cohesive sediment particles using a floc model that allows to estimate the sediment solid volume concentrationand the diameter of flocs D, presented by Winterwerp (2001). The transport equations of and D are solved using the moment method presented by Beaudoin et al. (2002 and 2004). The moment method has been used because it allows to reduce the CPU time, making feasible a parametric study. From this work, we have found a classification of tidal bores as a function of Froude number Fr. This classification is also based on the study conducted by Furgerot (2014). We have obtained that for a Froude number 1.04 < Fr < 1.43, the tidal bore is undular. For 1.43 < Fr < 1.57, the tidal bore is partially breaking that is similar with the tidal bore transtition defined by Furgerot (2014). For Fr > 1.57, the tidal bore is totally breaking. An analysis of pressure distributions has been performed by Baddour and Song (1990). We found that the total and hydrostatic pressures of undular tidal bores have great values under the crest and the trough wave. In the case of undular tidal bores, the total pressures are not equal to the hydrostatic pressures. In the case of breaking tidal bores, the total pressures become equal to the hydrostatic pressures when the tidal bores are totally breaking. The turbulence reduces the dynamic pressures. The impact of tidal bores on the transport of non-cohesive and cohesive sediment particles have been studied in this work. For the non-cohesive sediment particles, we have observed that the trajectory using the flow generated by OpenFOAM is similar with the type e trajectory proposed by Chen et al. (2010). The modifications of Chen’s model have been done by including the effects of gravity, elevation and attenuation to reproduce non-cohesive particle trajectories under an undular tidal bore. We have obtained that the relationship between the Chen’s parameters (β1 , β2 and β3) and the Froude number Fr are linear. This is because the level of turbulence for undular tidal bores is low. The flow induced by an undular tidal bore is not complex. This physical phenomenon is quasi linear. The parameter β1 , related to the front celerity of tidal bores, decreases when the Froude number Fr increases. The parameters, β2 and β3, related to the elevation and attenuation of tidal bores respectively, increase when the Froude number Fr increases. Finally, for the cohesive sediment particles, we have calculated the distribution of floc size D under two types of tidal bore, undular and breaking. We have used the initial diameter of cohesive sediment particles d = 4 μm. The initial floc size D is equal to 10 μm with the consentration of floc c = 0.5 kg/m3. And we have limited the maximum floc size equal to 2000 μm. We have obtained that the maximum value of floc size Dmax increases exponentially with the Froude number Fr.
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Yoga Satria Putra. Contributions numériques pour l'étude du transport des sédiments sous les mascarets. Mécanique des fluides [physics.class-ph]. Université de Poitiers, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018POIT2284⟩. ⟨tel-02044913⟩

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