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Fine mapping of antibiotic resistance determinants

Abstract : The emergence and spread of multi-drug resistance has become a major worldwide public health concern, calling for better understanding of the underlying resistance mechanisms. Genome-wide association studies are powerful tools to finely map the genetic polymorphism linked to the phenotypic variability observed in a population. However well documented for eukaryotic genome analysis, these studies were only recently applied to prokaryota.Through this PhD project, I searched how to better adapt these tools to the highly plastic bacterial genomes, mainly by working on the representation of the genetic variations in these genomes. Indeed, because the bacteria have the faculty to acquire genetic material by a means other than direct inheritance from a parent cell, their genomes can differ too much within a species to be aligned against a reference. A representation using sequence fragments of length k - the so-called k-mers - offers the required flexibility but generates redundancy and does not allow for a direct interpretation of the identified associations. The method we set up tests the association of these k-mers with the phenotype, and takes advantage of a De Bruijn graph (DBG) built over all genomes to remove the local redundancy of k-mers, and offer a visualisation of the genomic context of the k-mers identified by the test. This synthetic view as DBG subgraphs informs on the nature of the identified sequence: e.g. local polymorphism in a gene or gene acquired through a plasmid. The type of variant can be predicted correctly in 96% of the cases from descriptors of the subgraphs, providing a tractable framework for k-mer-based association studies
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Magali Jaillard Dancette. Fine mapping of antibiotic resistance determinants. Bioinformatics [q-bio.QM]. Université de Lyon, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSE1282⟩. ⟨tel-02044150⟩

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