Le défi de l'éducation au Brésil et en France : Le processus de lecture des jeunes et des adultes en situation de réinsertion scolaire dans la perspective d'une reprise d'études

Abstract : In terms of school reintegration of young people and adults, Brazil set up the educational program named Education for Young People and Adults [Educação de Jovens e Adultos – EJA], while France set up the educational project called Pass degree for the sake of the Access to University Studies [Diplôme d’Accès aux Études Universitaires - DAEU]. Each of these constitutes a complete educational device that composes The National System of Education in relation to others official programs as well as to specific courses, teaching staff and exams based on the degree acquisition. The graduates of both programs have the right to apply for public service. Moreover, in the Brazilian context they can apply for public and private universities and in the French situation they are able to sign up in the institutions that are open to people with a university degree. However, in Brazil the pedagogical training is oriented towards the job market and aims to promote the professional reintegration and the mobility of people, while the pedagogical training in France has as main point the pursuit of the studies by these individuals.In our thesis, we are interested in the teaching of the reading and we seek, by a contrastive perspective, to evaluate the effects of each of these two educational systems on the learning of the written comprehension; we also discuss the effects of the school model in which the readers have made their first learning, particularly, their first readings.Our research method, set up during several study sessions, invites the readers to answer a reading quiz about informative and journalistic texts that were extracted from the internet. To answer our present problematization, we formulate the following questions:(1)How do these readers read?(2)What are the elements of the text that they mobilize?(3)How are these elements taken up in their answers?(4)What are the strategies implemented during the reading?This method and its theoretical foundations are inspired by the work on reading and written comprehension conducted in the LIDILEM laboratory of the University of Grenoble-Alpes in the sense of the studies initiated by Michel DABENE (DABÈNE, FRIER & VISOZ, 1992) and of the works performed by the Brazilian team of research led by Lúcia CHEREM and Rosa NERY on the matrix of questions and the progress of reading. The intersection of these different indicators (part of the mobilized text, appropriation strategy of the text, identification of the argumentative path, value judgments and enunciative polyphony, formulation of the answer) allows us to reconstruct the coherence of the reading path – from the retrieval of the information to the understanding of the textual complexity through argumentation analysis – and to identify the types of reading concerning both the degrees of development and of reading-comprehension process.Furthermore, we ask whether the concern with the reading work in social thought (FREIRE, 1967) influences on the quality of the reading and written comprehension as well as on the quality of the pedagogical training of readers. We elaborate our answers by referring to researchers who, like Paulo Freire and Pierre Bourdieu, thought about the social question. We think, with them, that when reading is meaningful to the reader, the learning work is more motivated and more coherent.The special attention to the online press article, that we take as a basic document for our research, is motivated by this perspective that establishes the dialogue between the social practices of the written and the teaching-learning of the reading and written comprehension.
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Luciane Boganika. Le défi de l'éducation au Brésil et en France : Le processus de lecture des jeunes et des adultes en situation de réinsertion scolaire dans la perspective d'une reprise d'études. Linguistique. Université Grenoble Alpes; Universidade federal do Paraná (Brésil), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAL023⟩. ⟨tel-02043571⟩

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