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Evaluer les éco-quartiers : analyses comparatives internationales

Abstract : Since the end of the 20th century, eco-neighborhoods have contributed to the international development of a sustainable city paradigm. However, while the concept of sustainable development is today the result of an international consensus, its urban applications at the local level are multiple and diverse. Following this observation, many stakeholders have designed neighborhood sustainability assessment tools (NSAT) in the past ten years. The latter contribute to the design and construction of sustainable neighborhoods while justifying stakeholders choices. Those tools also measure the eco-neighborhood performance, using several consensual and measurable criteria over time. Moreover, NSA T which are locally designed and often standardized, are likely to be exported internationally. However, internationally exporting a NSAT designed locally is paradoxical, in relation to sustainable development principles. Our research examines the impact of NSAT on eco-neighborhoods' territorial integration. It analyses three case studies located in France, the United States and Brazil. Clichy Batignolles was developed in Paris and received the EcoQuartier label. Melrose Commons was built in New York and is LEED-ND certified. Ilha Pura is located in Rio de Janeiro, and is both LEED-ND and AQUA-HQE-A certified. Our study also briefly examines a fow1h case. Vinhomes Riverside was built in Hanoi, and received the Vietnam Green Architecture Award. However, our analysis could not be completed due to the Jack of access to essential data. From the data we do have, we extrapolate that there are discrepancies between the objectives set by the NSA T, those requested by the project's stakeholders leading to a given assessment, and finally the reality of the built eco­neighborhood. These discrepancies are more important when the NSA T has been exported. They are also measurable, and enlighten different levels of projects' territorial integration. Our research is based on the comparison of the cases. This comparison is following three steps: 1) analyzing the chosen NSA T 2) studying the eco-neighborhood performance score and 3) analyzing the built project. Our methodology is multidisciplinary and uses tools related to statistics, territorial engineering, geography, and architectural, urban and landscape analysis. We conclude that NSAT use various strategies related to the selection and measurement of indicators to integrate a neighborhood within a given territory. However, this integration is extremely variable. This is not only due to criteria and scale selection, but also to stakeholders who adapt their strategies to their territory. Finally, NSAT conceals urban complexities, and underestimates the diversity of contemporary eco-neighborhoods.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-02043510
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Claire Doussard. Evaluer les éco-quartiers : analyses comparatives internationales. Géographie. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PA01H070⟩. ⟨tel-02043510⟩

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