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Theses

Impact de la composition et des procédés sur la réactivité d’un produit modèle alvéolé de type cake

Abstract : In the food industry and notably in the field of cereal products, the type of ingredients used and their associated processes have several effects on the structure of the products and on the chemical reactions occurring during the manufacturing process. These reactions could have positive impacts (aroma, color) as well as negative outcomes (formation of potentially toxic compounds). Although being thoroughly studied in model systems, a better understanding of reactions in more realistic conditions would allow to improve the quality of the products. The aim of this work was to enable the study of chemical reactions occurring in a simplified solid system where the composition and structure were controlled while remaining representative regarding the conditions of the processes and the structure of the real product. Sponge cake was chosen as the product of reference.The first step consisted in developing a model product constituting a basis for studying the reactivity. In this regard, a study on new functionalities brought by each ingredient during each step of the manufacture process allowed to identify the cellulose derivatives as candidates to replace the reactive ingredients (eggs, sugar and wheat flour proteins). A multi-scale study allowed to better understand the impact of the main properties brought by the cellulose derivatives (viscosity at cold temperature, interface stabilization, gelation at high temperature) on the structure of the product. Finally, the model product was validated as a non-reactive media regarding the Maillard reaction and the caramelization.In a second step, reactive compounds (glucose and leucine) were placed in the model product and a kinetic monitoring on reaction markers was set up in the vapors and in the matrix during the baking. Thus, the addition of glucose and leucine in the model allowed to follow the formation of typical compounds coming from the Maillard reaction (Strecker’s aldehyde and pyrazines). These compounds did not developed when the model product was only enriched in glucose, whereas compounds generated by the caramelization reaction were identified. Moreover, changes in baking conditions (temperature, convection) allowed to emphasize the impact of heat transfer and drying on reaction pathways. These results pave the way of future kinetic studies, coupling systemic experiment and reaction modelling.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 20, 2019 - 5:03:12 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-02043049, version 1

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Josselin Bousquières. Impact de la composition et des procédés sur la réactivité d’un produit modèle alvéolé de type cake. Ingénierie des aliments. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLA004⟩. ⟨tel-02043049⟩

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