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Évaluation de la toxicité de molécules médicamenteuses par une étude des réponses comportementales, physiologiques et transcriptomiques d’un mollusque dulçaquicole (Radix balthica) et d’un plathelminthe (Schmidtea polychroa)

Abstract : Pharmaceuticals are often found in WWTP effluents realesed in surface water. In order to prevent and to understand the pharmaceuticals impact on aquatic ecosystems, it seems relevant to evaluate behavioural, physiological and transcriptomic disturbances of psychotropics on freshwater organisms. The aim of this study was thus to analyse disturbances of 4 psychotropics (oxazepam, carbamazepine, cyamemazine and sertraline) on 2 freshwater organisms, Radix balthica and Schmidtea polychroa. In our experiments, both Radix embryos at the trochophore stage and mature planarian were exposed to each psychotropic (from 1 to 100 μg/L). This psychotropic exposure results in an increase of the duration of Radix embryonic development and a disturbance of the mobility, the reproduction and the digestion but not the regeneration of planarian. Regarding the transcriptomic impact, we performed RNA sequencing in differential conditions of Radix embryos exposed or not to oxazepam. On one hand, this analysis allowed us to obtain the transcriptome sequences and, on the other hand, 144 contigs differentially expressed among which 94 genes were verified by RT-qPCR. The results showed that psychotropics impact mainly the Notch signalling pathways, but also the biosynthetic pathways of polyamines and catecholamines. Psychotropics also disturb the gene expression encoding some Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM) protein such as Matrilin and Dentin sialophosphoprotein. Regarding the molecular study of the psychotropics impact on planarian, we analysed the expression of 87 genes involved in different functions. The results showed that the 4 psychotropics modulate expression of genes involved in ciliary and muscular motility and in the nervous, reproductive and excretory systems. Genes from the digestive system are also impacted by the psychotropics. All the observed impacts on the 2 organisms suggest a possible disturbance on the population fitness and therefore on the freshwater ecosystems.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-02042344
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 20, 2019 - 12:37:07 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, February 21, 2019 - 1:25:06 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-02042344, version 1

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Jean-Yves Mazzitelli. Évaluation de la toxicité de molécules médicamenteuses par une étude des réponses comportementales, physiologiques et transcriptomiques d’un mollusque dulçaquicole (Radix balthica) et d’un plathelminthe (Schmidtea polychroa). Biologie moléculaire. Université Toulouse le Mirail - Toulouse II, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU20014⟩. ⟨tel-02042344⟩

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