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Impacts des technologies de dépollution et des conditions de conduites sur les émissions primaires des véhicules et leur évolution dans l'atmosphère

Abstract : Air pollution is a major urban issue, with pollutant concentrations frequently exceeding health recommendations. Vehicles are highly involved in air pollution despite the integration of pollution control systems. The objective of this research is to characterise the primary exhaust emissions of vehicles and their physical evolution in the near field to better understand the impact of primary emissions related to traffic on urban air pollution. Emissions evolution was studied in an atmospheric simulation chamber with controlled atmospheric conditions. The first part of this work aims to determine the exhaust emissions of recent vehicles that are or will be major in the French car fleet in the coming years. A sample of vehicles grouping the main commercialised depollution technologies was tested on a chassis dynamometer according to different driving conditions and the emissions from their exhaust gas were analysed. The pollutants subject to European regulations were taken into account, as well as compounds not regulated by European standards but whose toxicity has been highlighted by the scientific community.The second part of this work focuses on the near-field evolution of particulate pollutants in the hours following their release into the atmosphere. The effect of the abrupt gas dilution at the end of the exhaust has been studied using an innovative sampling methodology directly at the exhaust of the vehicles. Then the evolution of the particles in the first hours after their rejection was studied in an atmospheric simulation chamber of 8 m3, built specifically within the framework of this thesis to be coupled with the dynamometer.
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Cédric Louis. Impacts des technologies de dépollution et des conditions de conduites sur les émissions primaires des véhicules et leur évolution dans l'atmosphère. Thermique [physics.class-ph]. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSET013⟩. ⟨tel-02035080v3⟩

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