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Étude de l’amélioration du comportement au feu de polymères thermoplastiques par utilisation d’alumines trihydratées modifiées et de charges de vitrification.

Florian Cavodeau 1
1 Pôle MPA - Pôle Matériaux Polymères Avancés
C2MA - Centre des Matériaux des Mines d'Alès
Abstract : Polymeric materials are booming for many years in the building industry, due to a wide range of properties. However, those materials are particularly heat sensitive and may be easily flammable, contributing to the development of a fire. Because of the implementation of more strict standards related to fire safety, the elaboration of more and more efficient fire retardant systems is necessary.The first goal of this thesis is to study the fire retardant mechanisms of EVA/ATH composites, and particularly the barrier effect. The role of the packing fraction of the particles layer was assessed used the oedometric compression test. The measurement of the resistance to compression of a powder, or a combination, can be used to estimate the efficiency of the barrier effect for EVA/ATH composites.The second goal has focused on the characterization of new fillers in order to improve the fire behavior of the EVA copolymer. Firstly, diatomite was introduced as a synergistic agent with ATH. In a second time, ground colemanite and glass frits were introduced in order to improve the cohesion of the barrier layer and the residue of combustion by vitrification. Colemanite seems to be an efficient fire retardant, because of the endothermic reaction associated with the release of structural water, and a vitrification at high temperature. When the glass frits are introduced in EVA/ATH composites, the formation of the barrier layer is disrupted because of the coagulation of particles. As an upper layer in a skin-core structure, the glass frit vitrifies during the cooling of the sample, improving the cohesion of the residue and acting as a smoke suppressor.Finally, the last goal of this thesis was to functionalize ATH, to improve mechanical and fire retardant properties of EVA. Surface treatment molecules were synthetized, based on a phosphonated monomer, the MAPC1. The presence of a p(MMA-co-MAPC1(OH)2) copolymer at the surface of particles improves the filler dispersion in the matrix, enhancing the elongation at break. The grafting using a p(MAPC1(OH)2) homopolymer also improves the filler dispersion and the elongation at break. Moreover, the phosphorus based functions along the molecular chain, seem to act in condensed phase as a char promoter, and in gaseous phase by means of reactive radicals.
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Florian Cavodeau. Étude de l’amélioration du comportement au feu de polymères thermoplastiques par utilisation d’alumines trihydratées modifiées et de charges de vitrification.. Matériaux. Université Montpellier, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015MONTS192⟩. ⟨tel-02025504⟩

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