Les nombres de Catalan et le groupe modulaire PSL2(Z)

Abstract : In this thesis, we study a morphism of mono"id $mu$ between the free mono"id on the alphabet of integers $nb$and the modular group $PSL_2(zb)$ considered as a mono"id, defined for all integer $a$by $mu(a)=begin{pmatrix} 0 & -1 1 & a+1 end{pmatrix}.$ The Catalan Numbers arised naturally in the study ofsubsets of the kernel of the morphism $mu$.Firstly, we introduce two rewriting systems, one on the finite alphabet ${0,1}$, and the other on the infinite alphabet of integers $nb$. We proove that bothof these rewriting systems defines a mono"id presentation of $PSL_2(zb)$ by generators and relations.On another note, we introduce the morphism of loop associated to the abelianised of the universal covering group of $PSL_2(zb)$, the group $B_3$ ofbraid group on $3$ strands. In two different contexts, the morphism of loop is associated to the number of "half-turns".Then, in the fourth and the fifth parts, we numerate subsets of the kernel of $mu_{|{0,1}}$ and of the kernel of $mu$,bi-graduated by the morphism of lengthand the morphism of loop. The sequences of Catalan numbers and other diagonals of the Catalan triangle come into the results.Lastly, we present the geometrical origin of this research : we detail the connection between our first aim,which was the study of convex integer polygones ofminimal area, and our interest for the mono"id generated by these particular matrices of $PSL_2(zb)$.
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Christelle Guichard. Les nombres de Catalan et le groupe modulaire PSL2(Z). Théorie des nombres [math.NT]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAM057⟩. ⟨tel-02024805⟩

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