L’évolution du système de vulgarisation agricole face aux nouveaux défis de l’agriculture et aux enjeux de l’agroécologie dans les pays du Sud et de l’Est de la Méditerranée : le cas de la Syrie et de la Tunisie

Abstract : The aim of this dissertation is to analyze the evolution of the agricultural extension system in a Mediterranean context, in terms of organization, types of advice and methods of intervention drawn from a regional analysis of Syrian and Tunisian systems. This evolution responds to profound changes in the agricultural production model, historically based on the principles of the Green Revolution, which is evolving towards agro-ecological models. We situate this work in the movement known as the "agro-ecological transition", which proposes a framework of development associating socio-economic and environmental dimensions. This movement allows us to envision a better integration of agriculture and its stakes in the territorial development project. To design and implement the agro-ecological approach requires a profound change in the management of production systems. To ensure these changes, farmers need new support schemes. The analysis of the evolution of the extension systems is conducted from a theoretical and methodological framework constructed with reference to development theories, notably especially evolutionist, which take into account the general forces that determine local actions, and historicist, which give pace to development trajectories and singular territorial combinations. This framework assumes that the development does not depend on producers willing to adopt exogenous innovations but rather to participate in its elaboration. This participation meets two needs: i) the adaptation of innovation to the particularity of situations as the agroecological transition advocates ii) the decentralization of the management of socio-environmental goods, towards common forms. To deal with these challenges of transforming agricultural systems, we can be expected that the organization of agricultural extension has adapted by the passage of a system driven primarily by a public device, based on a single type of technical advice and on diffusionist methods of mass of extension, to a composite system offering several types of advice and individual or joint intervention methods based on the co-construction of the advice. Our analysis is based on an empirical work adapted to the situation of the two countries under study, circumscribed to the regions of Al Ghâb in Syria and Nabeul in Tunisia. The results are quite similar in both countries where the evolution of the agricultural sector occurs through small changes that rely more on the substitution of practices more economical and more respectful of the environment than previous practices, but these changes have not been accompanied by a significant evolution of the agricultural extension system. The state apparatus still occupies a monopoly position in Al Ghâb, and dominant in Nabeul. The organizational evolution of this system is limited, in both regions, to the deconcentration of services, with a timid privatization on the site of Nabeul. In both regions of study, the state apparatus uses classically collective counseling methods of advice based on the "Training and Visit" model, and is limited to a technical dimension based mainly on the proceeds of the Green Revolution, their contribution to the evolution of agricultural practices towards agroecology is not notable.
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Najwa Alaadrah. L’évolution du système de vulgarisation agricole face aux nouveaux défis de l’agriculture et aux enjeux de l’agroécologie dans les pays du Sud et de l’Est de la Méditerranée : le cas de la Syrie et de la Tunisie. Economies et finances. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018UBFCG002⟩. ⟨tel-02022704⟩

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