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Characterization and applications of quantum measurement invasiveness

Abstract : Quantum measurement invasiveness is a feature of quantum phenomena, i.e. associated with the fact that measurements can affect quantum systems in a manner which cannot be described by classical physics. In this thesis we will investigate measurement invasiveness through the Leggett-Garg inequality and another inequality based on the non-disturbance condition, both of which, when violated, witness measurement invasiveness. First, we will study a model for the violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality, which will allow us to provide an operational characterization of measurement invasiveness through a parameter called the measurability of the physical system. This parameter controls Leggett-Garg inequality violation and can be associated with experimental tests of this inequality, helping one to understand and interpret them. We will also investigate, through this model, the relationship between measurement invasiveness and a specific definition of macroscopicity, related to the \size" of spin systems. We will then seek to study an application of measurement invasiveness in the context of protocols for parameter estimation or quantum metrology. A general relationship between the Fisher information and temporal quantum correlations will be established, allowing one to characterize the robustness of metrological scenarios against the presence of noise. This relationship will also serve as a guideline for a connection between measurement invasiveness and (nearly-) optimal metrological scenarios. We will also establish a relationship between measurement invasiveness and a definition of a measure of macroscopic coherence. Lastly, we will propose a protocol for testing measurement noninvasiness based on the non-disturbance condition for spin systems of arbitrary size. This inequality allows one to argue against the possibility of its violation being due to the classical disturbance of measurements. We will show that the maximum value for the violation of this inequality Corresponds to the number of particles which constitutes the system.
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Saulo Vicente Moreira. Characterization and applications of quantum measurement invasiveness. Physics [physics]. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCC132⟩. ⟨tel-02021151⟩

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