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Coordination d'équipes et polycentricité : approche pratique d'une analyse institutionnelle de la coordination des équipes de secours d'urgence pré-hospitaliers de la Manche

Abstract : This thesis studies team coordination and polycentricity by proposing a practical approach to an institutional analysis of coordination. Indeed, the definition of coordination is not easy even if the term is used daily in different areas and especially that of health. Coordination would apply today to actions, actors or elements of an activity. Malone and Crowston (1994) note that coordination is so much present in our daily lives that we only perceive it mainly when it is failing. To refine the understanding of the coordination, studied using organization theory or organizational behavior theory, recent contributions have recognized an analysis of the microsocial, continuous and situated nature of coordination. They examine the coordination practices developed by the actors in the field (e.g. Faraj, Xiao 2006 ; Bechky, 2006; Kellogg and al., 2006; Jarzabkowski, and al., 2012; Harrison and Rouse, 2014; Schakel and al., 2016; BenMenahem and al., 2016; Wolbers and al., 2017 ; Bouty and Drucker-Godard, 2018). The analysis of coordination would thus be part of the examination of the recursive effects between concrete practices of coordination and institutional influences. However, it is clear that the literature struggles to demonstrate these reciprocal influences. The institutional environment is complex, many decision centers can be identified and are interdependent (Ostrom et al, 1961). In order to investigate these environments, Ostrom (2005) propose a polycentric conception of institutional diversity which enables us to understand how we can link the organization of the means to achieve a collective action, coordinated at institutional level as diverse as it can be, and the practices of the actors within action arenas. This thesis shows that the practical approach of the analysis and institutional development framework (ADI) proposed by Ostrom makes possible the combination of the different coordination analyzes carried out so far in the management literature within the same model. Using a comprehensive qualitative research on the coordination of pre-hospital emergency teams, we propose a coordination analysis framework integrating the different approaches to coordination developed in management sciences. We detail a central element of Ostrom's IAD framework: the action arena which is the place of coordination practices. Taking into account institutional diversity in action, leads us to rethink the team in meta-collective. It is a specific training made of interrelationships between multiple participants of intricate action arenas. The concept of polycentricity in management also allows us to design systems where a relationship to a resource is the basis of a system of vigilant and responsible interrelationships. This thesis also demonstrates the importance of dealing with institutional diversity, to deal with all possible situations in complex contexts, such as pre-hospital emergency relief. We propose to leave the logic of unification as the only possibility of efficiency as the multi-institutional systems are flexible, resilient and safe, especially thanks to the formalized or informal feedback that must be encouraged. However, in these polycentric contexts a robust and adaptable rule system must be preserved. The system can adapt itself by regularly changing the provisions for action. Attention must then be turned to the transition from "rules in use" to the stage of "institutionalized rules" to ensure the reliability of the system.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-02017681
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  • HAL Id : tel-02017681, version 1

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Pauline Lenesley. Coordination d'équipes et polycentricité : approche pratique d'une analyse institutionnelle de la coordination des équipes de secours d'urgence pré-hospitaliers de la Manche. Gestion et management. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSE2083⟩. ⟨tel-02017681⟩

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