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Theses

Les Topoï : de la logique à la sémantique ou des fondements sémantiques de la logique à la naissance de la sémantique

Abstract : Our problematic concerns the links between logic and topoï, semantics and topoï and finally between logic and semantics. The work therefore consists in highlighting the durability of the notion of topos, its evolution and its integration in logic, in semantics and even in computer science. From then on, topoi, logic and semantics are the three facets of this problematic.           The purpose of this thesis is to present the history of topoi, to identify their linguistic properties. It also shows that this notion is present in all linguistic approaches and that semantics is the unifying axis of all linguistic research.It is not our intention to give a new definition, but we have tried to summarize the main characteristics of the topoi and to draw up a table of past and current research developed on this notion.The approach we have adopted is constructive and diachronic. She highlighted the evolution of topoi, their forms, their senses and their uses. The notion of topoi continues to exist from antiquity to the present day, since it has semantic foundations, which are inherent in all natural languages.          Our work has three main parts. The first presents the terminological conception of the concept of topoi and its evolutionary aspect. It highlights the different jobs, the different definitions and the evolutionary aspect of the topoï. In this first part, we tried to sketch out the history of the notion of topoi, the use that has been made by logicians, rhetoricians, linguists, pragmatists and computer scientists.The second is devoted to the presentation of the semantic foundations of logic and topoi and to the complementary relationship of these three notions, namely logic, semantics and topoi. We have specified that the theory of topoi is a theory of meaning. And the third part deals with the lexical foundations of the topoi and the modern exploitation of this notion, namely the automatic processing, the theory of the frames and the ontology, while presenting the different semantic argumentative theories. We have presented / evoked first of all, "the places of Aristotle's enthymemes" which belong to the four principal places already mentioned in the first part (namely the definition, the kind, the clean and the accident). Then we have highlighted the presence of topoi from the lexical level in argumentative semantic theories (theory of topoï, theories of semantic blocks and semantics of argumentative possibilities and theory of prototypes). We presented a small example, a sample extraction of information using the NooJ platform.
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Refka Daoud. Les Topoï : de la logique à la sémantique ou des fondements sémantiques de la logique à la naissance de la sémantique. Littératures. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018UBFCH027⟩. ⟨tel-02017353⟩

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