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Tensions et paradoxes d'un processus d'individuation sexuelle : le cas de l'éducation sexuelle et affective dans les écoles catholiques d'élite à Santiago du Chili

Abstract : Sexuality is a basic component of the contemporary individuation process. It is part of the western project of a reflective and autonomous individual. However, the norms that define such sovereignty are collectively produced and reproduced: a sexed individual is the result of a specific socialization process. In this context, we examine affective and sexual education as seen by elitist catholic schools in Santiago de Chile. Contrary to what might be expected, sexuality is not approached in that social space by mere repression and sublimation of impulses. In fact, catholic schools follow the intention to form individuals that are responsible for themselves, responsibility extended also to their relationships with others. The ways to fulfill this purpose vary from conservatism that advocates abstinence of the youth, to a certain progressive statement that supports a careful sexual practice. The school creates in this process its own values, which allow it to ease the permanent tension between the ecclesiastic discourse and modern institutional approach to sexual matters. Furthermore, emotional and sexual education not only affects the individuation process: it also serves to distinguish institutions from each other, and creates an indirect competition among them. The universal goal to educate sovereign people generally emphasizes isolated individuals, and disregards the intricate web of social relationships in which they are immersed. The tension between "church and modern culture" is seen from a merely normative but non social point of view. Consequently, schools ignore the way in which sexual and affective education hides forms of normalization and the creation of differences in matters of body, privacy, emotionality, and the diversity in sexual experience. As a result, we can observe a phenomenon that we labelled "institutional self-absorbment" in order to describe our subject of study: that self-absorbment is the comprehension of sexuality and emotions based on a limited reflection regarding the social complexity in which an individual is submerged. This research uses an ethnographic approach to explore formal and informal sexual education in a specific social context within Chilean society, yet it addresses in general the issue of contemporary development of individual sexuality.
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Pablo Astudillo Lizama. Tensions et paradoxes d'un processus d'individuation sexuelle : le cas de l'éducation sexuelle et affective dans les écoles catholiques d'élite à Santiago du Chili. Sociologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCB206⟩. ⟨tel-02016502⟩

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