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Imagerie ultrasonore dans des matériaux complexes par focalisation en tous points : développement d'une méthode de débruitage des images basées sur la décomposition de l'opérateur de retournement temporel

Abstract : This thesis is related to ultrasonic non-destructive testing and detection of defects in complex materials. Improvements of the Total Focusing Method (TFM) when images are corrupted bya high noise level are proposed. Three main points are developed : the optimization of the acquisition of the impulse response matrix K(t) using virtual sources or spatial coding ; the separation of subspaces associated with the signal and the noise using the decomposition of the time reversal operator (DORT) ; and the image formation in the time domain with TFM after the signal denoising. Two different types of noise are considered : the coherent noise linked to the heterogeneous structure of a coarse-grained steel, and the incoherent electronic noise introduced by the signal acquisition system in the case of a high attenuating viscoelastic material.The study also focuses on imaging artifacts generated by surface waves which propagate alonga contact array probe. The singular values associated with these guided modes are modeled tofacilitate the interpretation of the decomposition of the transfer matrix ˆK( f ), and to filter theartifacts. When the region of interest is far from the probe axis, an alternative approach to singular vector back-propagation is proposed in order to improve the quality of images formedin the frequency domain. This approach consists in combining the DORT method with the topologica limaging. After the noise and surface waves filtering, the TFM images are comparedwith those calculated by the singular vector back-propagation or by the topological imaging.Then, this work focuses on the detection in a polyethylene pipe of high viscoelastic attenuation introducing unwanted noise in the TFM images. To record the K(t) matrix while increasingthe ultrasonic penetration depth, two Hadamard pseudo-codes are developed, and the gainsare theoretically and experimentally justified. A theoretical model of the singular values associated with the noise is then proposed to facilitate the defect response extraction from thetransfer matrix ˆK( f ). Finally, a filtering procedure for Plane Wave Imaging (PWI) is proposed,which combines the advantages of virtual sources (used in the coarse-grained steel) and coded transmissions (used in the polyethylene), thus giving excellent performances in complex materials
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Eduardo Rigoberto Lopez Villaverde. Imagerie ultrasonore dans des matériaux complexes par focalisation en tous points : développement d'une méthode de débruitage des images basées sur la décomposition de l'opérateur de retournement temporel. Physique [physics]. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCC126⟩. ⟨tel-02016013⟩

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