Contribution to the study and minimizing the impact of electromagnetic waves on the human body : Application in the field of mobile telephony

Najat Nasser 1
1 XLIM-SRF - Systèmes RF
XLIM - XLIM : SRF
Abstract : In this thesis, we propose new types of mobile handset PIFA antenna design to reduce the specific absorption rate (SAR) in human head. Three antennas were considered: a single band PIFA operating at 1.8 GHz, a dual band PIFA operating at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz, and a Triband PIFA operating at 900MHz, GSM 1800MHz, and 2400MHz. Surface current density along the ground plane was decreased by reducing the near electric field radiation coming from the radiating antenna to the human head, which in turns leads to a reduction in current density along human head as well as the SAR. This SAR reduction is accomplished by inserting several edges treatment such as U-shape at each corner of the ground plane of antenna. In this scenario, we studied three types: first one, when U-edges are made of PEC, we get SAR reduction about 78.6%. Second one is a liquid type that is considered as more advanced type. For this type, two antennas are considered: a single band PIFA operating at 1.8 GHz, and a dual band PIFA operating at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz. In this scenario, two cases were studied: first one when the U-edge is made of water, we noticed that the peak SAR value averaged over 10 g mass tissue was reduced to 73.52% in the case of single band PIFA, whereas the peak SAR was reduced to 88.78% and 90.31% in case of dual band. Second case, when U-edge filled with water, this enhanced structure was presented to overcome the manufacturing limitations of the first case design. Simulation results showed a better performance in terms of reflection coefficient and radiation pattern for both single-band and dual-band antennas. The results of SAR were also similar to the first case structure design for the single-band antenna. However, the SAR was slightly higher for the dual-band antenna, but it still remains very low (1.6 W/Kg at 900 MHz and 0.6 W/Kg at 1800 MHz). After that, for preserving the height of antenna, and making it more realistic to be applied, another type was done by inserting U-edges above each corner of the ground plane. In this case, we get SAR reduction as follows: 74.5% at GSM1800MHz in case of single band, and about 64.37%, 79.92%, and 54.71% at GSM900MHz, GSM1800MHz, and 2400 MHz in case of Tri-band averaged over 10g mass tissue. On the other hand, this thesis presents a modern and unprecedented safety antenna that transmits from the base station to the mobile user being operated at the GSM-900 band. The main objective of this study is to provide a constant field strength or a uniform coverage over a certain surface area, for preventing human health from several hazardous biological effects, and this strongly depends on the studied site (e.g. if it is densely urban, rural, open area, etc.). Our proposed design is synthesized using S.A.R.A (Synthesis of Array of Antenna) software. Besides, Atoll GSM planning tool is used to ensure the signal coverage and power strength for the safety antenna, and CST (Computer Simulation Technology) software for simulating the proposed antenna.
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Najat Nasser. Contribution to the study and minimizing the impact of electromagnetic waves on the human body : Application in the field of mobile telephony. Electronics. Université de Limoges, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018LIMO0091⟩. ⟨tel-02015927⟩

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