La métasynthèse : une méthode de synthèse des données qualitatives appliquée aux soins psychiques de l'adolescent

Abstract : Qualitative research is expanding fast in medicine and especially in psychiatry, where the patient and his representations of illness and care are central to treatment. In the field of adolescent health, great work provides important advances in the understanding of suffering and care. Qualitative methods are however often criticized because of their contextuality and their lack of generalization power. One way to improve these aspects is to match studies addressing the same issue so as to synthesize the main results. From a long time, human sciences have taken hold of this exercise of synthesis, which is significantly different from meta-analysis of quantitative research. They have called this work metasynthesis or meta-ethnography. The literature synthesis exercise is now increasingly codified in scientific research. However, some points are still under discussion - For example, inclusion criteria for studies, study quality criteria -. Moreover, no metasynthesis exist in the field of psychiatric research. This work describes the stages of construction and adaptation of a simple, rigorous, efficient, easy to share and teach method, which enables to do qualitative data synthesis in the field of psychological care to adolescents. On the one hand, we propose a theoretical, epistemological and methodological reflection on metasyntheses and their adaptation to the field of psychiatric care. On the other hand, we describe a practical progression: our method is built from metasyntheses conducted on two themes of adolescent psychological care. The first two papers are both metasyntheses. The first one is about adolescent obesity. The results highlight the limitations of the method we used. The second article focuses on the issue of suicidal behavior in adolescence. The methodological lessons of the first article helped us to improve the meta-synthesis method. The third article provides a detailed description of each steps of the method. In discussion, we propose to situate the method of metasynthesis in the historical context of the scientific evidence. We illustrate with recent papers the increasingly strong links that exist between metasynthesis, now called Qualitative Evidence Synthesis, and Evidence-Based Medicine. The metasynthesis is a modern method. It shows its interest in medical research. Our method applied to adolescent psychiatry is rigorous and reliable, and can increase scientific knowledge and improve the care of patients.
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Jonathan Lachal. La métasynthèse : une méthode de synthèse des données qualitatives appliquée aux soins psychiques de l'adolescent. Psychologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCB247⟩. ⟨tel-02015595⟩

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