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Modélisation électromagnétique et homogénéisation de composites tissés pour applications en compatibilité électromagnétique.

Abstract : Composite materials are widely used in the automotive industry as structural components. By combining lightness and robust mechanical properties, they are increasigly replacing the conventionnally used metallic alloys, for the manufacturing of vehicle parts. However, the use of composite materials is not without consequences on the electromagnetic behavior of these parts. Since carbon fiber reinforced composites are generally worse conductors of electricity than metals, they interact differently with the electromagnetic waves which surround them. It is therefore important to develop modeling tools to better understand the electromagnetic behavior of composite materials. This is to explain the changes that these materials bring to the distribution of waves, generated by a multitude of external sources, in the vicinity of mechatronic systems. On the other hand, the study of the electromagnetic behavior of composite materials makes it possible to determine the possibility of taking advantage of their attractive mechanical properties in order to further reduce the weight of electromagnetic shielding enclosures while maintaining a level of attenuation in accordance with the standards of the industry. However, numerical modeling of large composite structures, such as shielding enclosures, although conventionally adopted for metal structures, is hindered by the fact that composites exhibit heterogeneities at the microscopic scale. The numerical calculation becomes possible once the composite is replaced by a homogeneous material that exhibits an identical response to an identical electromagnetic solicitation. In this work, we present a homogenization technique, based on finite element simulation and an optimisation method, that computes an estimate of the equivalent electrical properties of unidirectional and woven fiber reinforced composites. The results are then used to simulate the shielding effectiveness of an enclosure constructed by combining composite materials and metallic alloys.
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Ghida Al Achkar. Modélisation électromagnétique et homogénéisation de composites tissés pour applications en compatibilité électromagnétique.. Autre. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLC108⟩. ⟨tel-02015528⟩

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