Optimisation de la culture de la spiruline en milieu contrôlé : éclairage et estimation de la biomasse

Abstract : Agriculture in a controlled environment, and in particular greenhouse cultivation, is one of the responses to the food needs of a growing population. It also makes it possible to optimize the surface of arable land and avoid pesticide and fertilizer releases harmful to man. In order to free of the cycles of the seasons and annual production, artificial lighting was introduced greenhouses since decades. Horticultural lighting followed the evolution of lighting technologies to arrive today up to LED. This lighting gives correct results, but it can be improved both in terms of quantity and spectral quality of light. From this point of view, LEDs have two main advantages : the possibility of recompose an ideal spectrum from different wavelengths and modulate the intensity of the light. Thus, they provide adapted lighting to the needs of the plant and this, in depending on the stage of its growth. The objective of this thesis is to propose an optimal lighting system for the growth of plants in a controlled environment. From the yield photosynthesis of plants, we established models of LED lighting systems optimized. These models are based on the combination of several monochrome LEDs obtained from the decomposition of the curve RQE by Pearson VII functions. We applied these theoretical results to the cultivation of a blue-green algae, the Spirulina Platensis. The choice of this plant-bacterium is based on several criteria : short crop cycle, applications in cosmetics, medicine and high nutritional value. Thus, we were able to study the influence of culture parameters such as light intensity, photoperiod, temperature on its growth. In addition, we have implemented two methods based on optical reflectance to quantify the biomass produced by spirulina.
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N'Goran Urbain Florent Niangoran. Optimisation de la culture de la spiruline en milieu contrôlé : éclairage et estimation de la biomasse. Optique / photonique. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30378⟩. ⟨tel-02013829⟩

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