L'idéologie méritocratique dans le système éducatif : un élément de reproduction sociale ?

Abstract : Despite the policies of equal opportunities, children’ social environment strongly influences their level of education (Observatory of Inequalities, 2011). The equality principle implies a meritocratic logic according to which each student has the same chances to succeed in school. However, meritocratic beliefs may have negative consequences for members of disadvantaged groups including self-assessment or self-concepts (Shannon & Major, 2006; Jost & Hunyady, 2005; Midgley, Feldlaufer, Eccles, 1989; Marsh, Köller, Baumert, 2001). However, members of disadvantaged groups need to believe in meritocratic ideology to preserve their self-image and/or their group (Jost et al., 2004; Kay & Friesen, 2011; Kay et al., 2009; Van Der Toorn et al., 2011). This work studied, how the belief in school meritocratic ideology may explain, in part, social inequalities in academic achievement and, secondly, the determinants of this belief, especially among disadvantaged students. The first three studies were carried out on primary school pupils. A first study (see study 1) highlights the existence of a mediation process between students’ socioeconomic status and their academic performances through their self-efficacy. The following three studies highlight how the belief in school meritocratic ideology can increase social achievement and self-efficacy gaps, predominantly in the field of mathematics among primary school pupils (see studies 2 and 3) while it reverses social self-competence gap typically observed among university students (see study 4). Results from a fifth study determined that in a context such as selective university, students of non-social science field believe stronger in school meritocratic ideology than students in the social sciences field. This effect is not observed for the students who perceive themselves as members of low socioeconomic status (see study 5). The last study presented in this work (see study 6) underlines that the students who perceive themselves as members of low socioeconomic status presented stronger belief in school meritocratic ideology in a salient selection process condition (vs. “Success for all” condition). This effect is reversed for the students who perceive themselves as members of high socioeconomic status groups. These results are discussed in relation to the definitions of the meritocratic ideology and the multiple meanings of the word “merit”. We also discussed the impact of these characteristics on the reproduction of inequalities in the education system, where the selection process is salient.
Document type :
Theses
Complete list of metadatas

Cited literature [229 references]  Display  Hide  Download

https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-02013553
Contributor : Abes Star <>
Submitted on : Monday, February 11, 2019 - 10:18:07 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, February 12, 2019 - 1:31:44 AM
Long-term archiving on : Sunday, May 12, 2019 - 1:18:16 PM

File

2015CLF20015_WIEDERKEHR.pdf
Version validated by the jury (STAR)

Identifiers

  • HAL Id : tel-02013553, version 1

Collections

Citation

Virginie Wiederkehr. L'idéologie méritocratique dans le système éducatif : un élément de reproduction sociale ?. Psychologie. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015CLF20015⟩. ⟨tel-02013553⟩

Share

Metrics

Record views

152

Files downloads

471