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Étude des transformations microstructurales de mélanges argile/Combustibles Solides de Récupération (CSR) lors de la cuisson : relations entre propriétés physico-chimiques, mécaniques et thermiques

Abstract : The valorization of co-products rich in organic and inorganic materials as additives in formulations based on clay matrix can improve both the mechanical and thermal performances of ceramic materials as well as the energy balance of the manufacturing processes of these products. This study focused on the incorporation of Solid Recovered Fuels (SRF) into the clay ceramics for civil engineering in close collaboration with TERREAL as part of the ANR funded LabCom RESPECTc project. Firstly, two SRF were selected and used as additives to improve the properties of ceramic materials from to clay mixture deposits named ML and MC from TERREAL. The influence of the nature, the amount of SRF, the grain size of SRF and the nature of clay matrix on the physico-chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of the clay/SRF mixtures were studied between 30°C and 1100°C. In all cases, the addition of SRF into the clay mixture (ML or MC) has enhanced the insulating nature of the ceramic materials by reducing their thermal conductivity. The addition of SRF has also improved the mechanical properties of the ceramic materials, depending on the nature and the amount of SRF added, the rate and the nature (shape, size and distribution) of the porosity created. The study demonstrated that interactions between clay minerals and inorganic elements of SRF have a significant effect on mechanical and thermal properties. The results showed that the addition of 4 wt.% of SRF15-1 containing an ash content of 65.7 wt.% into clay matrix ML led to increase the mechanical strength of the material based on the clay matrix ML of the order of 32%. Then, a kinetic model of thermal sintering based on the dimensional variations of ceramic materials between 650°C and 1000°C was developed from thermomechanical analysis (TMA) of the clay mixtures (with or without SRF). The main objective is to better understand the mechanism of the thermal sintering involved. The model developed showed a good adequacy with the experimental data. The results showed that the thermal sintering step of these mixtures is carried out by the presence of a liquid phase and that the addition of SRF has accelerated the densification of ceramic materials. This has led to decrease the usual firing temperature of ceramic materials, allowing a significant energy savings. Finally, an environmental assessment was carried out during the firing of clay/SRF mixtures. This study was particularly focused on the contribution of SRF to the energy balance and impact of critical gas emissions such as CO2, CO and HCl. The results showed that CO2 and CO emissions during firing of clay/SRF mixtures increased due to the thermal decomposition of the organic matter of SRF and that less than 50 wt.% of chlorine was converted to HCl (18-31 ppm). The energy balance showed that the addition of SRF into the ML matrix compensates for a significant part of the natural gas usually used as fuel during firing of these ceramic materials. This was reflected by a thermal energy saving and reduction of CO2 emissions from the decarbonatation of the clay matrix.
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Rababe Sani. Étude des transformations microstructurales de mélanges argile/Combustibles Solides de Récupération (CSR) lors de la cuisson : relations entre propriétés physico-chimiques, mécaniques et thermiques. Génie des procédés. Ecole des Mines d'Albi-Carmaux, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018EMAC0005⟩. ⟨tel-02012314⟩

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